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Climate variability in the SW Ecuadorian Andes of the past two millennia: a contribution to IGBP-PAGES 2k

English title Climate variability in the SW Ecuadorian Andes of the past two millennia: a contribution to IGBP-PAGES 2k
Applicant Grosjean Martin
Number 152986
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Oeschger-Zentrum für Klimaforschung Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Start/End 01.07.2014 - 30.09.2017
Approved amount 212'908.00
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All Disciplines (4)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences
Hydrology, Limnology, Glaciology
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy

Keywords (7)

South America; limnogeology; hyperspectral imaging; tropics; Little Ice Age; paleoclimatology; climate change

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Das IGBP Past Global Changes PAGES 2k Konsortium setzt sich zum Ziel, weltweit in hoher räumlicher Auflösung die Klimavariabilität der letzten 2000 Jahre zu rekonstruieren. Diese Information ist zentral, um die Auswirkungen der natürlichen Antriebsfaktoren (Sonne, Vulkane, Landnutzungsänderungen etc.), die internen Klimaschwankungen sowie den menschlichen Einfluss zu quantifizieren. Erst damit können Unsicherheiten für zukünftige Entwicklungen reduziert werden. In diesem Projekt untersuchen wir Seesedimente in SW Ecuador mit dem Ziel, für das tropische Südamerika entsprechende Datensätze herzustellen.
Lay summary

Das PhD Projekt verfolgte zwei Ziele:
(i) mittels Sedimenten aus 3-4 Seen im Nationalpark Cajas (SW Ecuador) erstellen wir quantitative Klimarekonstruktionen in hoher zeitlicher Auflösung für die letzten 2000 Jahre. Im Vordergrund steht die Variabilität des Hydroklimas, insbesondere von Statistik von Startniederschlägen. Die zentrale Frage ist, ob Starkniederschläge in diesem Raum mit dem Phänomen des El Niño zusammenhängen und, falls ja, ob Flutlagen in den Sedimenten eine zuverlässige El Niño Rekonstruktion ergeben. Ebenfals wollten wir testen ob Hyperspectral-Daten zur quantitativen Analyse von sedimentären Photopigmenten (als Indikator für aquatische primärproduktion) verwendet werden können.
(ii) mit andern Proxy-Daten aus dem tropischen Pazifik und Atlantik erstellen wir eine Regionale Synthese, die einen Baustein in der globale PAGES 2k Synthese darstellt.

Wir erstellten aus Sedimenten von drei Seen eine Rekonstruktion der Häufigkeit von Flutlagen für die letzten 2000 Jahre. Die Flutlagen sind Indikatoren für Starkniederschläge. Aus unseren Untersuchungen geht hervor, dass diese Starkniederschläge keinen Zusammenhang mit El Niño Ereignissen haben sondern eher mit Easterly Waves in Verbindung stehen.
Wir erstellten in Kooperation mit rund hundert Forschungsgruppen eine Datenbank mit 692 Temperaturreihen aus allen Kontinenten und den grössten Ozeanbecken für die letzte 2000 Jahre. Diese Daten bilden die Grundlage, um die aktuele Erderwärmung gemessen in der Instrumentenperiode in den grösseren Kontext zu stellen.
Auf der methodischen Seite konnten wir zeigen, dass räumlich und spektral hochaufgelöste Hyperspektraldaten kalibriert werden können und damit quatitativ sedimentäre Photopigmente (Chlorophyll  a und Pheophytin a) im hoher räumlicher Auflösung (Pixelgrösse um 50 um) gemessen werden können. 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 10.11.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
A high-resolution pigment and productivity record from the varved Ponte Tresa basin (Lake Lugano, Switzerland) since 1919: insight from an approach that combines hyperspectral imaging and high-performance liquid chromatography
Schneider Tobias, Rimer Denise, Butz Christoph, Grosjean Martin (2018), A high-resolution pigment and productivity record from the varved Ponte Tresa basin (Lake Lugano, Switzerland) since 1919: insight from an approach that combines hyperspectral imaging and high-performance liquid chromatography, in Journal of Paleolimnology, 60(3), 381-398.
Paleo-ENSO revisited: Ecuadorian Lake Pallcacocha does not reveal a conclusive El Niño signal
Schneider Tobias, Hampel Henrietta, Mosquera Pablo V., Tylmann Wojciech, Grosjean Martin (2018), Paleo-ENSO revisited: Ecuadorian Lake Pallcacocha does not reveal a conclusive El Niño signal, in Global and Planetary Change, 168, 54-66.
A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era
PAGES2k Consortium (2017), A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era, in Nature Scientific Data, 4, 170088.
Climate change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years
Gonzalez Arango C. Grosjean M. Kiefer T. Martinez J. Villalba R. (ed.) (2015), Climate change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years, Climate of the Past, European Geosciences Union.
Climate Change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years
Martínez J.I. González C. Grosjean M. and Villalba R (2015), Climate Change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years, in PAGES MAGAZINE, 23(1), 32-32.
A 150-year record of polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) deposition from high Andean Cajas National Park, southern Ecuador
Bandowe B.A.M. Fränkl L. Grosjean M. Tylmann W. Mosquera P.V. Hampel H. Schneider T., A 150-year record of polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) deposition from high Andean Cajas National Park, southern Ecuador, in Science of the Total Environment.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Oeschger Center Consortium Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
ETAPA Ecuador (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Institute of Geography/University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Aquatic Ecology Laboratory/ Universidad de Cuenca Ecuador (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
IGBP-PAGES Past Global Changes Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Gdansk Poland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. D. Kaufman/ U Arizona, Flagstaff United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
International Paleolimnological Association Talk given at a conference A 150-year record of polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) and heavy metal deposition from high Andean Cajas National Park, southern Ecuador 18.06.2018 Stockholm, Sweden Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
International Paleolimnological Association Talk given at a conference Analyzing neotropical diatom metacommunities across space and time 18.06.2018 Stockholm, Sweden Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
PAGES 5th Open Science Meeting Talk given at a conference Flood history in lake sediments from SW Ecuador: El Niño or not 09.05.2017 Zaragoza, Spain Schneider Tobias;
PAGES 3rd Young Scientists Meeting Poster Flood history in lake sediments from SW Ecuador: El Niño or not? 07.05.2017 Morillo de Tou, Spain Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
Swiss Global Change Day 2017 Poster Flood history in lake sediments from SW Ecuador: El Niño or not? 11.04.2017 Bern, Switzerland Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
Workshop Physical Geography Talk given at a conference Flood history in lake sediments from SW Ecuador of the past two millennia: El Niño or not? 31.03.2017 Fribourg, Switzerland Schneider Tobias; Grosjean Martin;
ICSU/FutureEarth/PAGES Flood Working Group ‘Cross community workshop’ Poster Flood history in lake sediments from SW Ecuador of the past two millennia: El Niño or not? 27.06.2016 Grenoble, France Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
Swiss Global Change Day 2015 Poster Climate reconstruction of the past two millennia based on lake sediments, SW Ecuador 01.04.2015 Bern, Switzerland Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
Swiss Quaternary Association Annual Meeting Poster Climate reconstruction of the past two millennia based on lake sediments, SW Ecuador 28.03.2015 Bern, Switzerland Schneider Tobias; Grosjean Martin;
Workshop Physical Geography Talk given at a conference Climate reconstruction of the past two millennia based on lake sediments, SW Ecuadorian Andes 13.03.2015 Schwarzenburg, Switzerland Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
13th International Swiss Climate Summer School 2014: Linking Land Use, Land Cover, and Climate Poster Seasonal temperature variability inferred from sedimentary photopigments and chrysophyte stomatocysts in Laguna Escondida, Chile (38°S) since AD 200 31.08.2014 Grindelwald, Switzerland Grosjean Martin; Schneider Tobias;
PAGES LOTRED-SA 3rd symposium: Climate change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years: Observations and models. Talk given at a conference The PAGES 2k initiative and LOTRED-SA: Achievements, challenges and perspectives 09.07.2014 Medellin, Colombia Grosjean Martin;
PAGES LOTRED-SA 3rd symposium: Climate change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years: Observations and models Talk given at a conference Seasonal temperature variability inferred from sedimentary photopigments and chrysophyte stomatocysts in Laguna Escondida, Chile (38°S), since AD200 09.07.2014 Medellin, Colombia Schneider Tobias;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
134945 Calibrating and validating scanning VIS Reflectance Spectroscopy data (380 - 730 nm) from minerogenic and biochemical varves: improving climate reconstructions from lake sediments 01.12.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
162203 Climate Change Detection and Attribution using high resolution paleoclimate observations 01.07.2015 International short research visits
107598 Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age Type Events in the South-Central Andes 01.07.2005 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Detecting the regional expressions of natural forced and unforced (internal) climate variability at interannual, decadal and centennial time-scales, and discriminating regional manifestations of natural forcing from anthropogenic forcing is one of the priority areas in current climate research. In this context, the spotlight is placed on the observation that, despite increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, global temperatures have not increased in the past decade. It has been suggested that this enigmatic temperature stabilization might be attributed to natural unforced (internal) climate variability (prolonged cooling in the tropical E Pacific).In 2013, the IGBP-Past Global Changes PAGES 2k Consortium has published the first quantitative global assessment of regional climate variability for the past 2000 years (PAGES 2k Consortium, 2013, Nature Geoscience). This unique community effort provides for the first time comprehensive observational (proxy-based) insight into the spatio-temporal structure of temperature variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age and thus allows for the detection and attribution of forced and unforced natural in the past 2000 years. However, PAGES 2k Consortium (2013) also demonstrates a significant gap of observational data in the tropics in general and tropical Central and South America (north of 20°S) in particular. This gap is very much in contrast to modelling and pseudo-proxy studies suggesting that tropical South America is among the most important and promising areas to provide sich information. Thus the significance of well-calibrated, validated high-resolution proxy-based climate reconstructions from tropical South America is demonstrated and recognized. This proposal seeks funding for a PhD project (i) to establish a high-resolution (sub-decadal) quantitative climate (temperature) reconstruction from lake sediments in the National Park Cajas, SE Ecuador, for the past 2000 years (Goal 1) and (ii) to provide a regional synthesis in the context of IGBP-PAGES LOTRED-SA, the regional PAGES 2 k Consortium for South America (Goal 2). The specific research questions are:1.Do sediments proxies (TOC, TS, bSi, grain size, sedimentary pigments, Fe/Mn species, uXRF, hyperspectral imaging) of lakes in NP Cajas contain a climate signal (calibration, verification), and can this be used to reconstruct climate for the past 2000 years?2.Can hyperspectral imaging data (400-1000 nm, 1 nm spectral and 40 um pixel resolution) be used for very high-resolution mapping of known sediment components (proxyhyperspectral-proxyanalytical calibration)?3.What is the structure and timing of regional subdecadal-centennial climate variability in tropical South America over the past 2000 years?4.How does climate variability in this area compare with southern South America and North America (PAGES 2k)?The proposed research builds primarily on the applicant’s (and his team) recognized expertise and innovations in paleoclimate and lake sediment research, which has been established through previous NF projects in South America (Central Chile NF 107598 2006-2008; Southern Chile NF 121869 2009-2011). Secondly, the proposed research is closely coordinated with the international IGBP-PAGES 2k Network which is unique and has produced genuine high-profile scientific results. The applicant is one of the coordinators for South America (2006-2017). Thirdly, we use a novel technology (hyperspectral imaging of lake sediments) which holds promise for great innovations, and we make full use of equipment that has partially been funded through NF R’EQUIP (14C AMS NF 133817 and uXRF scanner 144960; the applicant was one of the co-PIs). Fourthly, our projects benefits from close collaborations with ongoing research projects in the same study area.
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