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Archibald Campbell - Philosopher and Theologian at the Beginning of the Scottish Enlightenment

English title Archibald Campbell - Philosopher and Theologian at the Beginning of the Scottish Enlightenment
Applicant Maurer Christian
Number 147813
Funding scheme Advanced Postdoc.Mobility
Research institution The Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities University of Edinburgh
Institution of higher education Institution abroad - IACH
Main discipline Philosophy
Start/End 01.09.2013 - 31.08.2014
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Keywords (6)

Calvinism; Francis Hutcheson; Philosophy of Religion; Scottish Enlightenment; Moral Philosophy; Archibald Campbell

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Archibald Campbell (1691-1756) war Philosoph und Theologe, der ganz zu Beginn der schottischen Aufklärung wirkte, also kurz vor dem bekannten Philosophen und Historiker David Hume. Campbells moral- und religionsphilosophischen Schriften wurden 1735 von einem orthodox kalvinistischen Komitee unter die Lupe genommen.
Lay summary

Dieses Projekt widmet sich den religions- und moralphilosophischen Schriften des heutzutage kaum bekannten schottischen Philosophen Archibald Campbell, sowie seinem philosophie- und geistesgeschichtlichen Kontext. Campbell kam durch seine philosophischen Thesen in Konflikt mit dem streng kalvinistischen ‘Committee for the Purity of Doctrine’ der schottischen Kirche. In Zeiten tiefer Umwälzungen der europäischen Glaubenslandschaft während des Aufbruchs in die Aufklärung galten zahlreiche von Campbells philosophischen Thesen dem Komitee als häresieverdächtig. Auffälligstes Beispiel ist Campbells Auffassung, dass der Mensch nach dem Sündenfall nicht gänzlich verdorben sei, sondern trotzdem durch eigene Anstrengung moralisch gut handeln könne - diese These ist nach streng kalvinistischem Verständnis eine Häresie.

Das Projekt widmet sich Campbells Schriften, seinen Positionen im Vergleich mit anderen wichtigen Philosophen des 18. Jahrhunderts (so z.B. Francis Hutcheson, Bernard Mandeville, David Hume und Adam Smith), und insbesondere dem gut dokumentierten, aber kaum erforschten Aufeinandertreffen von Philosophie und Religion in Campbells Konflikt mit dem Komitee. Um diese Aspekte besser zu verstehen werden in Schottlands Bibliotheken und Archiven Bücher, Pamphlete, Briefe und Manuskripte ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse versprechen uns philosophie- und geistesgeschichtliche Veränderungen auch in anderen Regionen Europas besser zu erschliessen: die reformierten Gebiete waren damals in äusserst regem Austausch, was Philosophie und Theologie betrifft.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 22.06.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Publications

Publication
What Can an Egoist Say Against an Egoist? On Archibald Campbell's Criticisms of Bernard Mandeville
Maurer Christian (2014), What Can an Egoist Say Against an Egoist? On Archibald Campbell's Criticisms of Bernard Mandeville, in The Journal of Scottish Philosophy, 12(1), 1-18.
Stoicism and the Scottish Enlightenment
Maurer Christian, Stoicism and the Scottish Enlightenment, in Sellars John (ed.), Routledge, London, New York.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
University of Edinburgh, IASH - Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of St. Glasgow, Research Group on 17th Century Scottish Philosophy Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of St. Andrews, Philosophy & Intellectual History Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Unusual Emptiness of the Title Page - Bernard Mandeville's Fable of the Bees Talk given at a conference Mandeville on Shaftesbury and the Stoics 12.06.2014 Helsinki, Collegium for Advanced Studies, Finland Maurer Christian;
https://www.nias.knaw.nl/workshops/calendar/workshop-events/mandeville2019s-moral-and-political-thought-in-its-historical-context Talk given at a conference Some Remarks on Mandeville's Religious Rhetoric 03.06.2014 Wassenaar, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies NIAS, Netherlands Maurer Christian;
IASH Fellow's Seminar Individual talk Archibald Campbell (1691-1756) and the Committee for Purity of Doctrine of the Church of Scotland 02.04.2014 University of Edinburgh, IASH, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;
Religion in the Scottish Enlightenment Talk given at a conference Orthodoxy in Dispute: The Committee for Purity of Doctrine and Archibald Campbell's Philosophy of Religion 14.03.2014 Princeton Theological Seminary, Centre for the Study of Scottish Philosophy, United States of America Maurer Christian;
Workshop on Scottish Philosophy in Scotland and France in the 17th Century Talk given at a conference On Moral Philosophy and Religion in 17th-Century Scottish Philosophy 22.02.2014 Université Paris 1 - Panthéon-Sorbonne, France Maurer Christian;
Workshop on Scottish Philosophy in Scotland and France in the 17th Century Talk given at a conference Reason's not so Sufficient Insufficiency: Rom. 1.19,20, and the Committee's Attack on Campbell's Philosophy of Religion 23.11.2013 University of Edinburgh, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
163751 Tolerance, Intolerance and Discrimination Regarding Religion 01.08.2016 SNSF Professorships

Abstract

This project aims to analyse and contextualise the philosophy of religion and the moral philosophy of Archibald Campbell (1691-1756), a rarely studied philosopher and theologian at the very beginning of the Scottish Enlightenment. Campbell was a contemporary of Francis Hutcheson, and a predecessor of David Hume. He is a particularly interesting figure because unlike other Scottish philosophers, he was directly attacked by a theological 'Committee for the Purity of Doctrine'. His case offers thus the unique opportunity to study the intricate relations between early Enlightenment philosophy and profoundly changing Calvinist theology, and this project is the first to explore these aspects.
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