Efficiency; Redox flow battery; Computational modeling; Power; Microfluidics; 3D Integration; Density; Computer ; Fluid dynamics; In situ analytics; Electrocatalysis; Chaotic mixing; Selective membranes; Heat and mass transfer; Microfabrication
Oldenburg Fabio Jonas, Bon Marta, Perego Daniele, Polino Daniela, Laino Teodoro, Gubler Lorenz, Schmidt Thomas J. (2018), Revealing the role of phosphoric acid in all-vanadium redox flow batteries with DFT calculations and in situ analysis, in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
, 20(36), 23664-23673.
Lisboa Kleber Marques, Marschewski Julian, Ebejer Neil, Ruch Patrick, Cotta Renato Machado, Michel Bruno, Poulikakos Dimos (2017), Mass transport enhancement in redox flow batteries with corrugated fluidic networks, in Journal of Power Sources
, 359, 322-331.
Nibel Olga, Rojek Tomasz, Schmidt Thomas J., Gubler Lorenz (2017), Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membranes with Significantly Improved Vanadium Barrier Properties for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries, in ChemSusChem
, 10(13), 2767-2777.
Nibel Olga, Taylor Susan M., Pătru Alexandra, Fabbri Emiliana, Gubler Lorenz, Schmidt Thomas J. (2017), Performance of Different Carbon Electrode Materials: Insights into Stability and Degradation under Real Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Operating Conditions, in Journal of The Electrochemical Society
, 164(7), A1608-A1615.
Nibel Olga, Bon Marta, Agiorgousis Michael L., Laino Teodoro, Gubler Lorenz, Schmidt Thomas J. (2017), Unraveling the Interaction Mechanism between Amidoxime Groups and Vanadium Ions at Various pH Conditions, in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
, 121(12), 6436-6445.
Marschewski Julian, Ruch Patrick, Ebejer Neil, Huerta Kanan Omar, Lhermitte Gaspard, Cabrol Quentin, Michel Bruno, Poulikakos Dimos (2017), On the mass transfer performance enhancement of membraneless redox flow cells with mixing promoters, in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, 106, 884-894.
Taylor Susan M., Pătru Alexandra, Fabbri Emiliana, Schmidt Thomas J. (2017), Influence of surface oxygen groups on V(II) oxidation reaction kinetics, in Electrochemistry Communications
, 75, 13-16.
Marschewski Julian, Brenner Lorenz, Ebejer Neil, Ruch Patrick, Michel Bruno, Poulikakos Dimos (2017), 3D-printed fluidic networks for high-power-density heat-managing miniaturized redox flow batteries, in Energy Environ. Sci.
, 10(3), 780-787.
Nibel Olga, Schmidt Thomas J., Gubler Lorenz (2016), Bifunctional Ion-Conducting Polymer Electrolyte for the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with High Selectivity, in JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY
, 163(13), 2563-2570.
Taylor Susan M., Pătru Alexandra, Streich Daniel, El Kazzi Mario, Fabbri Emiliana, Schmidt Thomas J. (2016), Vanadium (V) reduction reaction on modified glassy carbon electrodes – Role of oxygen functionalities and microstructure, in Carbon
, 109, 472-478.
Bon Marta, Laino Teodoro, Curioni Alessandro, Parrinello Michele (2016), Characterization of Vanadium Species in Mixed Chloride–Sulfate Solutions: An Ab Initio Metadynamics Study, in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
, 120(20), 10791-10798.
Marschewski Julian, Brechbühler Raphael, Jung Stefan, Ruch Patrick, Michel Bruno, Poulikakos Dimos (2016), Significant heat transfer enhancement in microchannels with herringbone-inspired microstructures, in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, 95, 755-764.
Marschewski Julian, Jung Stefan, Ruch Patrick, Prasad Nishant, Mazzotti Sergio, Michel Bruno, Poulikakos Dimos (2015), Mixing with herringbone-inspired microstructures: overcoming the diffusion limit in co-laminar microfluidic devices, in Lab On A Chip
, (8), 1923-1933.
Sridhar Arvind, Sabry Mohamed M., Ruch Patrick, Atienza David, Michel Bruno (2014), PowerCool: Simulation of integrated microfluidic power generation in bright silicon MPSoCs, in 2014 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD)
, San Jose, CA, USAIEEE, San Jose.
Sabry Mohamed M., Sridhar Arvind, Atienza David, Ruch Patrick, Michel Bruno (2014), Integrated microfluidic power generation and cooling for bright silicon MPSoCs, in Design Automation and Test in Europe
, Dresden, GermanyIEEE, Dresden.
We address here the integration density of future high-performance computers with an approach inspired by packaging and architectural principles of the human brain: a dense 3D architecture for interconnects, fluid cooling, and power delivery through redox species transported in the coolant with low power requirement for pumping. Vertical integration improves memory proximity and bandwidth, but current power delivery and cooling solutions do not allow integration of multiple layers with dense logic elements. Interlayer liquid-cooled 3D chip stacks solve the cooling bottleneck but are still limited by power delivery and communication thresholds. We propose a fundamental concept, redox flow electrochemistry for power delivery and cooling (REPCOOL), which eliminates the conventional electrical power supply network, thereby reducing conversion and transport losses, liberating valuable space for communication, and allowing scaling to systems beyond exascale device count and performance. This novel bionic concept is similar to the integration principle in the human brain with fluid-based power delivery and promises to improve system efficiency by several orders of magnitude. We aim at addressing this challenging research through the following synergistic research packages:(1)The first research component will establish a property catalog required for on-chip integration of REPCOOL modules. Relying on existing microfabrication and packaging expertise, microfluidic cells will be fabricated for component testing by detailed spatiotemporally resolved electrochemical and thermal characterization. At the end, all sub-project components will be integrated into a joint demonstrator with ~10 W/cm2 electrochemical power density and <15 K temperature rise of the coolant using electrical, thermal and fluidic packaging established by this first sub-project. (2)The second research component focuses on advanced electrode and membrane materials for electrochemical conversion to substantially enhance reaction kinetics and ionic selectivity. The main tasks involved are fabrication and electrochemical screening of electrode and membrane materials for REPCOOL systems and their characterization in terms of structure and electrochemical performance.(3)The third component focuses on markedly improving heat and mass transport in the microfluidic REPCOOL systems. This effort encompasses flow visualization and characterization with electrochemical modeling and implementation of transport enhancement schemes.(4)The fourth research component will focus on enhancing the scientific understanding of interactions between redox couples and surface chemistry using ab initio molecular dynamics. This study encompasses a predictive computational study of electrolyte speciation and electrode surface chemistry and their influence on reaction kinetics to guide experimental system development. All these components aim at developing a science base for combined power delivery and cooling for the next generation microprocessors, and clearly require a collaborative, multidisciplinary research effort. The power densities required to feed chip stacks are only possible when mass transport is maximized with minimal convective resistance (3), interfacial redox reactions are catalytically favored and electrode/membrane design is optimized (2), which can only be successfully solved in a short time with the benefit of predictive computational modeling (4) and dedicated experimental flow cell trials (1). A final joint consolidation of the results then allows reaching the power densities necessary to impact ultra-dense, high efficiency chip stacks. The proposed effort will contribute to the fundamental understanding of future dense compute architectures that are also needed for neuromorphic hardware and will help advance the efficiency of computing systems (today ~10^9 ops/J) toward the efficiency of biologic brains (~10^14 ops/J).