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Acoustic emissions from progressive failures in snow and soil: Towards predictability of abrupt mass release

English title Acoustic emissions from progressive failures in snow and soil: Towards predictability of abrupt mass release
Applicant Lehmann Peter
Number 146647
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Terrestrische Ökosysteme ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geomorphology
Start/End 01.02.2014 - 31.01.2018
Approved amount 296'186.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geomorphology
Civil Engineering

Keywords (5)

soil; failure; landslides; snow avalanches; snow

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Schneelawinen und Hangrutschungen treten oft unvermittelt und ohne Vorzeichen auf und sind darum ein unberechenbares Risiko. Allerdings ereignen sich bereits vor der Rutschung kleine 'lokale' Störungen (brechende Schneekristalle, reissende Wurzeln und Reibung). Diese Störungen generieren elastische Wellen, die sich durch Schnee oder Böden als 'akustische Emission' ausbreiten. Diese Wellen können mit Sensoren gemessen werden und möglicherweise die drohende Massenbewegung ankündigen.
Lay summary

Das Ziel dieses Forschungsprojektes besteht darin, 'akustischen Emissionen', die bei lokalen Störungen in Böden oder Schnee freigesetzt werden, (i) mit geeigneten Sensoren zu messen, (ii) die Signale zu quantifizieren und (iii) mittels geeigneter Modelle bezüglich des Risikos einer bevorstehenden Massenbewegung zu interpretieren. Zwar sind der Aufbau und die mechanischen Eigenschaften von Schnee und Böden unterschiedlich, in beiden Fällen ereignen sich aber gewaltigen Kettenreaktionen, in denen sich lokale Störungen fortpflanzen und verstärken, bis sich eine grosse Masse vom Untergrund löst und abrutscht. Aufgrund von Erfahrungen in Materialwissenschaften erwarten wir, dass sich die Satistik der lokalen Störungen mit dem Annähern an einen instabilen Zustand mit Rutschungsauslösung ändert. Wir werden versuchen, diese Störungen in Schnee und Böden mit verschiedenen akustischen Sensoren zu messen. Zudem bilden wir physikalische Modelle, die die Störungen und die Erzeugung akustischer Emissionen simulieren. Durch die Messung und deren Interpretation mit den entwickelten Modellen werden wir versuchen, den Zustand eine Hanges zu bestimmen und die Zeit der Rutschungsauslösung zu berechnen.

 

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 23.01.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Deforestation Effects on Rainfall‐Induced Shallow Landslides: Remote Sensing and Physically‐Based Modelling
Lehmann Peter, Ruette Jonas, Or Dani (2019), Deforestation Effects on Rainfall‐Induced Shallow Landslides: Remote Sensing and Physically‐Based Modelling, in Water Resources Research, 55(11), 9962-9976.
Modeling Snow Failure Behavior and Concurrent Acoustic Emissions Signatures With a Fiber Bundle Model
Capelli A., Reiweger I., Schweizer J. (2019), Modeling Snow Failure Behavior and Concurrent Acoustic Emissions Signatures With a Fiber Bundle Model, in Geophysical Research Letters, 46(12), 6653-6662.
Acoustic emission signatures prior to snow failure
CAPELLI ACHILLE, REIWEGER INGRID, SCHWEIZER JÜRG (2018), Acoustic emission signatures prior to snow failure, in Journal of Glaciology, 64(246), 543-554.
How Landslides Become Disasters
Lehmann Peter, von Ruette Jonas, Or Dani (2018), How Landslides Become Disasters, in Eos, 99, 32-36.
Fiber-bundle model with time-dependent healing mechanisms to simulate progressive failure of snow
Capelli Achille, Reiweger Ingrid, Lehmann Peter, Schweizer Jürg (2018), Fiber-bundle model with time-dependent healing mechanisms to simulate progressive failure of snow, in Physical Review E, 98(2), 023002-023002.
Continuum cavity expansion and discrete micromechanical models for inferring macroscopic snow mechanical properties from cone penetration dataContinuum Versus Discrete CPT Models in Snow
Ruiz Siul, Capelli Achille, van Herwijnen Alec, Schneebeli Martin, Or Dani (2017), Continuum cavity expansion and discrete micromechanical models for inferring macroscopic snow mechanical properties from cone penetration dataContinuum Versus Discrete CPT Models in Snow, in Geophysical Research Letters, 44(16), 8377-8386.
Fiber-optic high-resolution acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of slope failure
Michlmayr Gernot, Chalari Athena, Clarke Andy, Or Dani (2017), Fiber-optic high-resolution acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of slope failure, in Landslides, 14(3), 1139-1146.
Speed and attenuation of acoustic waves in snow: laboratory experiments and modelling with Biot’s theory
Capelli Achille, Kapil Jagdish, Reiweger Ingrid, Or Dani, Schweizer Jürg (2016), Speed and attenuation of acoustic waves in snow: laboratory experiments and modelling with Biot’s theory, in Cold Regions Science and Technology, 125, 1-11.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
WSL, ETH, EPFL: TRAMM Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Institute for Mechanical Systems ETH, Prof. Dr. Jürg Dual Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Calgary, Prof. Dr. J.B. Jamieson Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EGU General Assembly 2019 Talk given at a conference Physically based modeling of rainfall thresholds for the onset of landslides 08.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Lehmann Peter; Or Dani;
AGU Fall meeting 2018 Talk given at a conference Physically based modeling of rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering 10.12.2018 Washington, United States of America Or Dani; Lehmann Peter;
EGU General Assembly 2018 Talk given at a conference Quantifying deforestation effects on rainfall induced shallow landslides and debris flows pathways 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Lehmann Peter; Or Dani;
EGU General Assembly 2018 Poster Physically based modeling of the origins of rainfall intensity-duration landslide triggering thresholds 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Or Dani; Lehmann Peter;
EGU General Assembly 2018 Poster Fiber bundle model with healing mechanisms: towards simulating progressive failure of snow 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Schweizer Jürg; Lehmann Peter; Capelli Achille;
AGU Fall Meeting American Geophysical Union, 2017 Talk given at a conference STEP TRAMM – A modeling interface for simulating localized rainfall induced shallow landslides and debris flow runout pathways 10.12.2017 Louisiana, United States of America Lehmann Peter; Or Dani;
15th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Davos 2017 Talk given at a conference A fiber bundle model with healing mechanisms for snow failure modelling 17.11.2017 Davos, Switzerland Schweizer Jürg; Capelli Achille;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly Talk given at a conference STEP-TRAMM – A modeling interface for simulating localized rainfall induced shallow landslides and debris flow runout pathways 23.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Fan Linfeng; Or Dani; Lehmann Peter;
EGU General Assembly Poster Snow fracture: From micro-cracking to global failure 23.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Schweizer Jürg; Capelli Achille;
Slab Avalanche Multiscale MechanicalModeling SLAM3 Poster A fiber bundle model with healing mechanisms for snow failure modelling 03.04.2017 Davos, Switzerland Schweizer Jürg; Capelli Achille;
14th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Studying the acoustic emissions and the failure process during loading experiments of snow 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Capelli Achille; Schweizer Jürg;
Kongress Graubünden forscht – Young Scientists in Contest 2016 Poster A new test apparatus for studying the failure process during loading experiments of snow 14.09.2016 Davos, Switzerland Schweizer Jürg; Capelli Achille;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly Poster A new test apparatus for studying the failure process during loading experiments of snow 23.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Capelli Achille; Schweizer Jürg;
EGU General Assembly Poster Propagation characteristics of acoustic waves in snow 12.04.2015 Vienna, Austria Schweizer Jürg; Capelli Achille; Or Dani;
12th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference Propagation characteristics of acoustic waves in snow under laboratory conditions 22.11.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Capelli Achille; Or Dani; Schweizer Jürg;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Il Giardino di Albert, Pericolo valanghe RSI LA 1 Italian-speaking Switzerland 2017
Media relations: print media, online media Das Ding: Scherapparat Diagonal, WSL-Magazin German-speaking Switzerland 2016
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Verformungen und akustische Emissionen bei Bruchvorgängen im Schnee SLF website Italian-speaking Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland International Western Switzerland 2016

Awards

Title Year
Academic Award on occasion of the conference Graubünden forscht Young Scientists in Contest 2016 2016

Use-inspired outputs

Software

Name Year
STEP-TRAMM 2018


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
169424 Dynamic crack propagation in dry snow: from crack formation to predicting slab avalanche size 01.03.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
122299 Local and regional hydrologic and geomorphic factors determining landslide patterns 01.01.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)
149329 Near real-time monitoring of snow avalanche activity - much needed instability data to improve avalanche forecasting 01.02.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
158349 Modelling critical acoustic emission patterns prior to dry-snow slab avalanche release 01.02.2015 Marie Heim-Voegtlin grants

Abstract

We propose a framework for linking local failure in snow and soil preceding hazardous mass release with their measurable acoustic emission signatures. Relevant failure processes including: shearing, compression, fracturing, friction, root de-bonding, breakage of ice-crystals and cementing agents result in emission of measurable elastic waves. We propose to develop methodologies for improving in-situ monitoring and interpretation of acoustic emissions as markers of local failure events. Models for many interacting mechanical elements would be coupled with real-time statistical properties of acoustic emissions to assess the degree of susceptibility (criticality) to slope failure. To attain these goals we address the following scientific questions: (i) how can we identify and measure spatially distributed local failures, (ii) how can we relate a measured surrogate variable (e.g., acoustic signals) to the type and size of local failure, and (iii) can we improve predictions of time windows and locations of imminent mass release from real-time analyses of distributed acoustic emission signals. Results of this project should help close the gap between disciplines (acoustics and mechanics of abrupt failures in snow and soil), improve predictions of localized mass release events, and provide a better scientific basis for design of acoustically-based monitoring and early warning systems.
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