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Re-thinking Zones: A Comparative Study of Urban Planning Cultures

English title Re-thinking Zones: A Comparative Study of Urban Planning Cultures
Applicant Kurath Monika Maria
Number 146516
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution ETH Wohnforum Departement Architektur ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Sociology
Start/End 01.09.2013 - 31.10.2017
Approved amount 420'799.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Sociology
Social geography and ecology

Keywords (3)

planning cultures; zoning; urban planning

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Weshalb Zonieren? Eine vergleichende Studie urbaner Planungskulturen
Lay summary
Weshalb Zonieren? Eine vergleichende Studie urbaner Planungskulturen

Verschiedentlich wird festgestellt, dass sich die Stadtplanung in einer Krise befindet: Insbesondere die funktionale Trennung von Wohnen, Arbeiten und Erholen — die Grundlage zonenbasierter Stadtplanung der Moderne — wird für dysfunktionale Entwicklungen verantwortlich gemacht, wie Zersiedlung der Landschaft, ausufernde Agglomerationen und anwachsende Pendlerströme.

Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht das Projekt Planungskulturen im urbanen Raum aus der Perspektive der Stadtsoziologie und der Wissenschafts- und Technikforschung. Dabei untersucht es Vancouver (Kanada) und Zürich (Schweiz), zwei Städte vergleichbarer Grösse und Atmosphäre, die beide zonenbasierte Planung anwenden, allerdings in unterschiedlichen Kontexten. Der Fokus des Projektes liegt auf der Zonierung, als einem der zentralen Instrumente der Raumplanung, welche im Zusammenspiel mit Stadtentwicklung zu einer spezifischen Planungskultur führt. Dazu wird ein hybrider analytischer Ansatz verwendet, der Zonieren als in wechselseitiger Prägung mit einer bestimmten Planungskultur auffasst. Im Gegensatz zu traditioneller Planungsliteratur wird Planungskultur nicht als übergreifender Begriff für Planungsansätze sondern als analytisches Konzept verwendet, das die Kategorien ‚Themen’, ‚Akteure’, ‚Arenen’ und ‚Praktiken’ zonenbasierter Stadtplanung umfasst.

Das Projekt möchte nicht nur zu laufenden Diskussionen in der Wissenschaftsforschung und der wissenschaftsforschungsorientierten Stadt-, Planungs- und Raumforschung beitragen, sondern auch eine relativ neue, noch nicht breit etablierte Perspektive in diesem Bereich eröffnen. Erkenntnisse dieser Forschungsarbeit sollen auch in die untersuchten Stadtplanungsbehörden der beiden Städte zurückfliessen.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.04.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Planung ist unsichtbar
Kurath Monika, Bürgin Reto (ed.) (2019), Planung ist unsichtbar, transcript Verlag, Bielefeld.
A Canadian perspective on negotiated land use plans: Discretionary zoning in Vancouver
Marskamp Marko (2018), A Canadian perspective on negotiated land use plans: Discretionary zoning in Vancouver, in Gerber Jean-David, Hartmann Thomas, Hengstermann Andreas (ed.), Routledge, Oxford, 7.2.
Constructing the urban citizen: rational democracies and deliberative deficits in public engagement with planning
Kurath Monika (2018), Constructing the urban citizen: rational democracies and deliberative deficits in public engagement with planning, in Kurath Monika, Marskamp Marko, Paulos Julio, Ruegg Jean (ed.), Palgrave, Macmillan, London, 121-149.
Performing urbanity: from circulating references to situated practices
Paulos Julio (2018), Performing urbanity: from circulating references to situated practices, in Kurath Monika, Marskamp Marko, Paulos Julio, Ruegg Jean (ed.), Palgrave Macmillan, London, 229-257.
Politics of zoning: plans, procedures and publics in land-use change
Marskamp Marko (2018), Politics of zoning: plans, procedures and publics in land-use change, in Kurath Monika, Marskamp Marko, Paulos Julio, Ruegg Jean (ed.), Palgrave Macmillan, London, 75-96.
Relational Planning: Tracing Artefacts, Agency and Practices
Kurath Monika, Marskamp Marko, Paulos Julio, Ruegg Jean (ed.) (2018), Relational Planning: Tracing Artefacts, Agency and Practices, Palgrave Macimillan, London.
Multiple Assembling: Some reflections on the Assembling Cities workshop
Kurath Monika, Marskamp Marko, Da Cruz Paulos Julio, Ruegg Jean (2015), Multiple Assembling: Some reflections on the Assembling Cities workshop, in EASST Review, 34(1), 1-3.
Materielle Partizipation in der Stadtplanung
Kurath Monika, Paulos Julio, Materielle Partizipation in der Stadtplanung, in Kurath Monika, Bürgin Reto (ed.), Transcript, Bielefeld.
Planung ist Unsichtbar: Planungssoziologie zwischen relationaler Design- und Akteur-Netzwerk-Theorie
Kurath Monika, Bürgin Reto (ed.), Planung ist Unsichtbar: Planungssoziologie zwischen relationaler Design- und Akteur-Netzwerk-Theorie, Transcript, Bielefeld.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
KTH Stockholm Sweden (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Center for STS, European University of St.Petersburg Russia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Liège, Economic Geography Unit Belgium (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Harvard University, Program on Science, Technology & Society United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen School of Management Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Geography, Legal Geography Research Group Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Copenhagen University, Department of Sociology Denmark (Europe)
- Publication
University of Lausanne, Interface Science Société Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
University of Amsterdam, Graduate School of Social Sciences, Centre for Urban Studies Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires, Sociétés (LATTS) France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of British Columbia, Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning Canada (North America)
- Exchange of personnel
Goldsmiths, University of London, Department of Sociology Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- Publication
Sociology Kobenhavn University Denmark (Europe)
- Publication
MCTS TU Munich Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
The Bartlett School of Planning UCL Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Departemental Lecture Individual talk On Artefacts, Agency and Practices: A Relational Perspective on Planning 19.10.2018 Oxford University, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Kurath Monika Maria;
Science and Democracy Network (SDN) 15th Annual Meeting (Harvard, UCL & LSE) Talk given at a conference On City, Democracy and justification: inquiring the co-constitution of public engagement with planning 22.09.2016 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland da Cruz Paulos Julio;
Becomings in planning/Planning in becoming: PhD Workshop (KTH Stockholm) Talk given at a conference Reenacting planning: from circulating references to situated practices 21.09.2016 Stockholm, Sweden da Cruz Paulos Julio;
Inside Planning: Exploring the Practices and Cities of Urban Planning PhD Workshop (MCTS, TU Munich) Talk given at a conference The planner and the project: situating knowledge processes in planning networks 12.09.2016 Munich, Germany da Cruz Paulos Julio;
4S/EASST Conference Barcelona: Track 004 ‘Research and practice intervening in a material world’ Talk given at a conference STS and Planning: Introduction to Track 004 ‘Research and practice intervening in a material world’ 31.08.2016 Barcelona, Spain Kurath Monika Maria;
4S/EASST Conference: Science and Technology by other means Talk given at a conference De-centring the planner: on fragmentations, expectations and demonstrations in urban politics 31.08.2016 Barcelona, Spain da Cruz Paulos Julio;
Participating in innovation, innovating in participation, 2nd i3 Conference (CSI, Écolde des Mines, Paris) Talk given at a conference Inquiring the attachments of urban citizenship: issues, inscriptions and the displacement of 03.12.2015 Paris, France da Cruz Paulos Julio;
STS Talks: Department of Science and Technology Studies Individual talk Constructing the Urban Citizen: Participation and Democracy in Urban Design 05.10.2015 Universität Wien, Austria Kurath Monika Maria;
Urban STS: Assembling new perspectives: Talk given at a conference Urban Design and Democracy: Comparing mediations and citizen engagement in urban planning 18.09.2015 European University of St.Petersburg, Russia Kurath Monika Maria;
MCTS-Incubator Von smarten Technologien zum städtischen Raum: Zur kooperativen Reflexion & Gestaltung intelligenter Städte Talk given at a conference Smart city: Vom wandernden Konzept zum leeren Signifikanten? 06.07.2015 MCTS TU München, Germany Kurath Monika Maria;
Congress of the Swiss Sociological Association 2015 Talk given at a conference Engaging citizens — transforming the urban 03.06.2015 Universität Lausanne, Switzerland Kurath Monika Maria;
Agency/Agents of Urbanity Colloquium, EPFL Architecture and Sciences of the City Talk given at a conference Performing Urbanity: an ‘in situ’ analysis of a cooperative planning workshop in Vienna 01.06.2015 Lausanne, Switzerland da Cruz Paulos Julio;
2015 Graduate Critical Studies Conference: Alternatives, Critiques, and Re-imaginings Talk given at a conference Politics of Zoning: Plans, practices and publics in land-use change 29.04.2015 Vancouver, Canada Marskamp Marco;
Stadtkolloquium Interdisciplinary Urban PhD Research Seminar – 6th Annual Workshop, UCL, Urban Laboratory, Department of Geography Talk given at a conference Assembling Cities: a situated inquiry into the modes of comparison 30.03.2015 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland da Cruz Paulos Julio;
Assembling Cities: STS concepts and methodologies in planning studies Talk given at a conference Things Overlooked: Exploring housing renewal networks with actor-network theory 21.01.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Marskamp Marco;
Assembling Cities: STS concepts and methodologies in Planning Studies Talk given at a conference Translating factishes into blueprints: an ‘in situ’ analysis of a cooperative planning workshop in Vienna 20.01.2015 ETH Zürich, Switzerland da Cruz Paulos Julio;
ACSP 2014: Big Ideas, Global Impacts Talk given at a conference Rethinking Zones: A comparative study of planning cultures 30.10.2014 Philadelphia, United States of America Marskamp Marco;
AESOP 2014: From control to co-evolution: PhD Workshop Talk given at a conference Mapping Planning Cultures with STS: An ethnographic study of zoning at work 05.07.2014 Delft, Netherlands Marskamp Marco;
CEU Graduate Conference Blurring the Boundaries Talk given at a conference Making plans of the city and for the city with zoning: Mapping planning controversies in the Mariahilf district in Vienna 05.06.2014 Budapest, Hungary Marskamp Marco; da Cruz Paulos Julio;
AG DSG Designed to Improve: Buildings, interventions and the makings of the social in interdisciplinary urban practices Talk given at a conference Making the Laboratory Work: The potential of the laboratory in interdisciplinary research 22.05.2014 Hamburg, Germany Marskamp Marco;
11th Meeting of the Young Researchers Network City-Space-Architecture Talk given at a conference Assembling Polycentricity: A comparative study of planning tools and concepts in practice 03.04.2014 Berlin, Germany Marskamp Marco;
Swiss STS Meeting; Session: An STS perspective on the city Talk given at a conference Performing Zoning: Revision of the zoning code in Zürich 20.02.2014 Lausanne, Switzerland Marskamp Marco;
Swiss STS Meeting: Collecting, organizing, trading big data Talk given at a conference An STS perspective on the city 20.02.2014 Universität Lausanne, Switzerland Kurath Monika Maria; Marskamp Marco; Ruegg Jean; da Cruz Paulos Julio;
4S/EASST Konferenz Talk given at a conference Re-Assembling Vancouver’s Southeast and Zurich’s North: Urban Identity and Sustainability in Industrial Area Conversion 19.10.2013 University of Kopenhagen, Denmark Kurath Monika Maria;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Urban STS: Assembling New Perspectives 18.09.2015 European University of Saint Petersbourg, Russia
Session Congress of the Swiss Sociological Association 2015: Re-assembling the public? From collective action to invited participation 03.06.2015 Universität Lausanne, Switzerland
Assembling Cities: STS concepts and methodologies in planning studies 20.01.2015 ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Swiss STS Meeting; Session: An STS perspective on the city 20.01.2014 Universität Lausanne, Switzerland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
171893 Organizing Planning: Politics of land use change 01.02.2017 Doc.Mobility

Abstract

Urban development discourses have diagnosed a crisis in planning. Above all, the functional separation of living, working, and recreation-the basis of function-based zones and urban planning in modernity (e.g. Athens Charter)-has been severely criticised for producing dysfunctions, such as urban sprawl, excessive land use and increasingly long commutes. These considerations form the background of the proposed project on planning cultures in urban areas, which is located at the interface of urban sociology and science and technology studies (STS). It focuses on zoning as a major tool of land use planning and as a device that interplays together with urban development and participates in building a planning culture (Haar & Kayden 1989; Talen 2005). This analysis of urban planning viewed through the lens of zoning employs a hybrid approach which is based on the concepts of actor-network theory (ANT) (Latour 2005) and urban assemblages (Farías & Bender 2009). In this regard, zoning is conceptualized as a non-human actor in an ANT sense that frames and is being framed by a specific planning culture. In contrast to traditional planning literature, planning culture is not used as an over-arching term for diverse planning approaches. The term rather refers to an analytical concept which has been derived from comparative approaches of culture in STS such as epistemic culture (Knorr Cetina 1999) and political culture (Jasanoff 2005), to explore the categories issues, actors, arenas and practices of zone based urban planning.The proposed project aims at analysing planning cultures in Vancouver (Canada) and Zurich (Switzerland), two cities, comparable in size and atmosphere. Both use zoning as an instrument, however, practiced with different operational, legal and political background. The proposed qualitative comparative study will employ a mix of methods comprising participant observation at urban planning authorities and qualitative interviews of planning experts and is based on the following hypotheses:1.Zoning as a land use development tool is employed extensively in both Zurich and Vancouver; however, the planning culture of each city frames and is framed by the issues, actors, arenas and practices of zoning.2.Despite similarities in the issues addressed and the arenas in which planning processes take place, both cities differ considerably in the actors involved and their practices, i.e, how zoning and urban planning are performed.The empirical analysis of the planning cultures of both cities will consider the following scopes of investigation:1.issues: thematically and content-related structures linked to zoning and urban planning2.actors involved in urban planning and zoning3.arenas: places, where urban planning and zoning processes take place4.practices of urban planning and zoningBy introducing a practical theory approach of analysing issues, actors, arenas and practices of planning and using an ANT-inspired hybrid-framed concept, i.e., planning cultures, the proposed project aims at overcoming the thusfar neglected understanding in urban sociology of the city as a non-stable entity. Doing this, it contributes to transcending action theory’s and institution theory’s blind spots of framing cities, planning and zones as stable, and well-defined entities. By using a comparative, micro-analytical approach, the project not only adds to ongoing discourses in STS and STS-framed urban and regional studies, but also offers a relatively new and not yet well established perspective in planning and urban studies. In addition, the relevance of the project lies in its potential that the findings may be directly implemented in urban planning. Due to its comparative approach, the project opens new perspectives on planning and its consequences-aspects that might be of high benefit to authorities, departments and individuals involved in planning in both cities analysed.
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