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FORCE: Maintenance & Operation for the LHC Experiments 2012

English title FORCE: Maintenance & Operation for the LHC Experiments 2012
Applicant Nakada Tatsuya
Number 141547
Funding scheme FORCE / CERN
Research institution Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies EPFL - SB - IPHYS - LPHE
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Particle Physics
Start/End 01.04.2012 - 31.03.2013
Approved amount 1'020'300.00
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Keywords (9)

New Physics; ATLAS ; Standard Model; Supersymmetry; LHC Experiment ; Higgs ; CP Violation; CMS; LHCb

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

Since its physics start in November 2009 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – CERN’s proton-proton collider, which will ultimately collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV – performs extremely well. After a short initial data taking in the end of 2009 at 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV, the collision energy was immediately increased to 7 TeV. By October 2011, the machine had delivered integrated luminosities of 5 fb-1, 5 fb-1 and 1 fb-1 to the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, respectively, well above the plan.

The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb detectors, together with one other large and three smaller detectors, measure the reaction products at the collision points of the LHC and analyse the data to extract physics. Since the mid-nineties and with an enormous effort, the world-wide particle physicist community has designed, developed, constructed (with participation of industry) and installed these experiments at the collision points to exploit the physics at the TeV scale. New insight into the nature of electro-weak symmetry breaking has already been obtained and supersymmetric particles or extra spatial dimensions may be discovered from the direct observation of new particles and/or detecting deviations from the Standard Model predictions in CP violation and rare decays through precision measurements. Switzerland, through substantial involvement of the Universities of Berne, Geneva and Zurich, of ETHZ and EPFL as well as of PSI, significantly contributed to ATLAS, CMS and LHCb.

These experiments are operated by the scientists who have built them. Additional support is provided by CERN in its role as the host laboratory of the LHC accelerator. The associated "Maintenance and Operation cost" (M&O) are composed of a) the daily running and maintenance expenses, and b) the provision of the scientific and technical manpower to ensure operations and the good working order of the sub-detector systems for the whole lifetime of the experiments of at least 10 years.

The 2012 M&O cost had been examined by a scrutiny group and were approved by the international LHC Resources Review Board (RRB) during its meeting on 17-19 October 2011. Each institute participating in this project is required to take a share, which is proportional to its contribution to the detector(s).

This FORCE request is coordinated by CHIPP (Swiss Institute of Particle Physics) and is a joint request from of all Swiss institutes active in the LHC detector construction and operation. It summarises the Swiss contributions to the three LHC detector's design, construction, commissioning, operation and physics exploitation, explains CERN's concept of maintenance and operation (including funding mechanisms) and gives an overview of the costs for 2012, which the Swiss institutes are expected to cover according to the RRB agreement.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
146644 Experimental Particle Physics with the LHCb detector at Cern 01.04.2013 Project funding
135989 FORCE 2010: Maintenance & Operation for the LHC Experiments 2011 01.04.2011 FORCE / CERN
147467 FLARE 2013: Operation and upgrade of the LHCb experiment 01.04.2013 FLARE
129499 Particle Physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 01.04.2010 Project funding
147468 FLARE: Maintenance & Operation for the LHC Experiments 2013 01.04.2013 FLARE
134622 FORCE - GRID Infrastructure for LHC Experiments 01.04.2011 FORCE / CERN
135134 FORCE Request: Operations and Upgrades of the Barrel Pixel Detector and the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the LHC 01.06.2011 FORCE / CERN
135188 FORCE 2011: Construction of the LHCb experiment 01.04.2011 FORCE / CERN
134940 FORCE 2011: High Precision CP Violation Physics at LHCb 01.07.2011 FORCE / CERN
134623 FORCE - Support for CMS Tier-3 Analysis Facility 01.04.2011 FORCE / CERN
134986 FORCE: Proton-Proton Collider Physics with the ATLAS Experiment at CERN 01.04.2011 FORCE / CERN
146398 Search for New Physics and Measurements of Higgs boson properties with CMS 01.04.2013 Project funding
147466 FLARE Request: Operation, Computing and Upgrades of the CMS Experiment 01.04.2013 FLARE
144493 High-Energy Hadron Interactions: ATLAS at the CERN LHC 01.10.2012 Project funding
145626 Interactions - Swiss particle physicists initiate a dialogue with society 01.02.2013 Agora
135453 Experimental Particle Physics at the LHC 01.04.2011 Project funding
135103 FORCE - Physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN 01.04.2011 FORCE / CERN
132401 High-Energy Hadron Interactions : CDF at the Tevatron and ATLAS at the CERN LHC 01.10.2010 Project funding

Abstract

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN’s proton-proton collider, which ultimately will collide protons with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, operates flawlessly and to the full satisfaction of all scientists and technicians involved since mid-November 2009. Starting at a collision energy of 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV, the operation energy was immediately increased to 7 TeV. By October 2011, an integrated luminosity for ATLAS and CMS reached 5 fb-1 each and for LHCb 1 fb-1, well above the plan. Starting in the mid-nineties, the world-wide particle physicist community has designed and developed four major detectors (as well as three smaller ones) designed to measure the reaction products at the interaction regions of LHC. Constructed with participation of industry, they were installed at the collision points to exploit the physics at the TeV scale. New insight into the nature of electro-weak symmetry breaking is expected and supersymmetric particles or extra spatial dimensions may be discovered from the direct observation of new particles and/or detecting deviations from the Standard model predictions in CP violation and rare decays through precision measurements. The experiments record the reaction products at the interaction regions of LHC. They are run by the collaborations which measure and analyse the data to extract physics. CERN in its role as the host laboratory of the LHC accelerator provides the operation of the LHC accelerator complex, as well as infrastructure and basic service for the experiment. However, operation of the experiment is under the responsibility of the collaborations. This includes covering the specific cost associated to it, referred as "Maintenance and Operation cost" (M&O), which is composed of the following two categories: A) contribution to the daily running and maintenance expenses of the detector and collaboration, andB) provision of the scientific and technical manpower to ensure operations and the good working order of the sub-detector systems they have provided for the whole lifetime of the experiment of about 10 years. The M&O requests and the distribution of these costs (A and B above) among the institutes, which is proportional to their participation, were approved by the Ressources Review Board RRB during its meeting on 17-19 October 2011, where all funding agencies are present. It must be noted that the M&O requests had been examined by a scrutiny group whose members were nominated by the RRB. This FORCE request is coordinated by CHIPP (Swiss Institute for Particle Physics) and is a common request from of all institutes active in the LHC detector construction and operation. It summarises the Swiss contributions to the three LHC detector's design, construction, commissioning, operation and physics exploitation. It explains CERN's concept of maintenance and operation (including funding mechanisms) and gives an overview of the costs for 2012, which Switzerland is supposed to cover (according to the RRB agreement).
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