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WOOd combustion and SHIpping - primary aerosol emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential (WOOSHI)

English title WOOd combustion and SHIpping - primary aerosol emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential (WOOSHI)
Applicant Prévôt André
Number 140590
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Labor für Atmosphärenchemie Paul Scherrer Institut
Institution of higher education Paul Scherrer Institute - PSI
Main discipline Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Start/End 01.01.2013 - 31.12.2016
Approved amount 343'719.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy

Keywords (10)

Particulate matter; Air pollution; Organic aerosol; wood combustion; ship engine; emissions; smogchamber; mass spectrometry; health effects; climate effects

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Atmosphärische Partikel, auch Aerosole genannt, verursachen bei hohen Konzentrationen Gesundheitsprobleme und sind auch wichtig bezüglich des Klimas. Man unterscheidet primäre Aerosole, welche direkt emittiert werden, und sekundäre Aerosole, welche erst in der Atmosphäre nach chemischer Oxidation von Gasen entstehen. Die Holzfeuerungen und Schiffsemissionen sind 2 Quellen von kohlenstoffhaltigem Aerosol, deren primäre und vor allem sekundäre Beiträge nicht gut quantifiziert sind.
Lay summary
Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojektes

Bei Holzfeuerungen in der Schweiz und einem Schiffsdieselprüfstand in Rostock sollen die primären und sekundären organischen Aerosolemissionen mit einer neu gebauten mobilen Smogkammer sowie state-of-the-art Messinstrumenten (insbesondere Massenspektrometrie) charakterisiert und quantifiziert werden. Bei den Holzfeuerungen werden die Emissionen und die Alterung bei Temperaturen gemessen, wie sie in der Aussenluft sind (d.h. auch Temperaturen unter Null Grad Celsius). Dies wurde noch nie gemacht, ist aber wichtig, da die organischen Bestandteile bei wärmeren Temperaturen sich verflüchtigen können. Bei Schiffsemissionen wurde die sekundäre organische Aerosolbildung noch gar nie gemessen. Hier werden insbesondere Experimente mit verschiedenen Treibstoffen (Schweröl versus saubererem Schiffsdiesel) durchgeführt, um zu testen, wie problematisch die Emissionen generell sind und was der Einfluss der Treibstoffart ist

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Die Bildung von sekundären organischen Aerosole ist ein ‚heisses’ Forschungsgebiet in der Atmosphärenforschung. Die Quellen und genauen Bildungsmechanismen sind noch unklar und deshalb ist deren Einbezug in Klimamodellen nicht einfach und unsicher. Es ist deshalb wichtig, verschiedene Quellen und Prozesse im Detail zu studieren.

Das schlussendliche Ziel ist es, die problematischen Emissionen von Holzfeuerungen oder Schiffsmotoren zu identifizieren und wissenschaftliche Grundlagen für allenfalls notwendige Reduktionsmassnahmen zu erarbeiten.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 05.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Impact of anthropogenic and biogenic sources on the seasonal variation in the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: a field and laboratory study using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry
Daellenbach K. R., Kourtchev I., Vogel A. L., Bruns E. A., Jiang J. H., Petaja T., Jaffrezo J. L., Aksoyoglu S., Kalberer M., Baltensperger U., El Haddad I., Prevot A. S. H. (2019), Impact of anthropogenic and biogenic sources on the seasonal variation in the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: a field and laboratory study using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19, 5973-5991.
Infrared-absorbing carbonaceous tar can dominate light absorption by marine-engine exhaust
Corbin J. C., Czech H., Massabo D., de Mongeot F. B., Jakobi G., Liu F., Lobo P., Mennucci C., Mensah A. A., Orasche J., Pieber S. M., Prevot A. S. H., Stengel B., Tay L. L., Zanatta M., Zimmermann R., El Haddad I., Gysel M. (2019), Infrared-absorbing carbonaceous tar can dominate light absorption by marine-engine exhaust, in Npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 2, 1-10.
Brown and Black Carbon Emitted by a Marine Engine Operated on Heavy Fuel Oil and Distillate Fuels: Optical Properties, Size Distributions, and Emission Factors
Corbin J. C., Pieber S. M., Czech H., Zanatta M., Jakobi G., Massabo D., Orasche J., El Haddad I., Mensah A. A., Stengel B., Drinovec L., Mocnik G., Zimmermann R., Prevot A. S. H., Gysel M. (2018), Brown and Black Carbon Emitted by a Marine Engine Operated on Heavy Fuel Oil and Distillate Fuels: Optical Properties, Size Distributions, and Emission Factors, in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 123, 6175-6195.
Characterization of Gas-Phase Organics Using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Residential Coal Combustion
Klein F., Pieber S. M., Ni H. Y., Stefenelli G., Bertrand A., Kilic D., Pospisilova V., Temime-Roussel B., Marchand N., El Haddad I., Slowik J. G., Baltensperger U., Cao J. J., Huang R. J., Prevot A. S. H. (2018), Characterization of Gas-Phase Organics Using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Residential Coal Combustion, in Environmental Science & Technology, 52, 2612-2617.
Evolution of the chemical fingerprint of biomass burning organic aerosol during aging
Bertrand A., Stefenelli G., Jen C. N., Pieber S. M., Bruns E. A., Ni H. Y., Temime-Roussel B., Slowik J. G., Goldstein A. H., El Haddad I., Baltensperger U., Prevot A. S. H., Wortham H., Marchand N. (2018), Evolution of the chemical fingerprint of biomass burning organic aerosol during aging, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 7607-7624.
Influence of the vapor wall loss on the degradation rate constants in chamber experiments of levoglucosan and other biomass burning markers
Bertrand A., Stefenelli G., Pieber S. M., Bruns E. A., Temime-Roussel B., Slowik J. G., Wortham H., Prevot A. S. H., El Haddad I., Marchand N. (2018), Influence of the vapor wall loss on the degradation rate constants in chamber experiments of levoglucosan and other biomass burning markers, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 10915-10930.
Mitigation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Log Wood Burning Emissions by Catalytic Removal of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Pieber S. M., Kambolis A., Ferri D., Bhattu D., Bruns E. A., Elsener M., Krocher O., Prevot A. S. H., Baltensperger U. (2018), Mitigation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Log Wood Burning Emissions by Catalytic Removal of Aromatic Hydrocarbons, in Environmental Science & Technology, 52, 13381-13390.
Trace Metals in Soot and PM2.5 from Heavy-Fuel-Oil Combustion in a Marine Engine
Corbin J. C., Mensah A. A., Pieber S. M., Orasche J., Michalke B., Zanatta M., Czech H., Massabo D., de Mongeot F. B., Mennucci C., El Haddad I., Kumar N. K., Stengel B., Huang Y., Zimmermann R., Prevot A. S. H., Gysel M. (2018), Trace Metals in Soot and PM2.5 from Heavy-Fuel-Oil Combustion in a Marine Engine, in Environmental Science & Technology, 52, 6714-6722.
Characterization of gas-phase organics using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: fresh and aged residential wood combustion emissions
Bruns E. A., Slowik J. G., El Haddad I., Kilic D., Klein F., Dommen J., Temime-Roussel B., Marchand N., Baltensperger U., Prevot A. S. H. (2017), Characterization of gas-phase organics using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: fresh and aged residential wood combustion emissions, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 705-720.
Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars
Platt S. M., El Haddad I., Pieber S. M., Zardini A. A., Suarez-Bertoa R., Clairotte M., Daellenbach K. R., Huang R. J., Slowik J. G., Hellebust S., Temime-Roussel B., Marchand N., de Gouw J., Jimenez J. L., Hayes P. L., Robinson A. L., Baltensperger U., Astorga C., Prevot A. S. H. (2017), Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars, in Scientific Reports, 7, 1-9.
Modelling winter organic aerosol at the European scale with CAMx: evaluation and source apportionment with a VBS parameterization based on novel wood burning smog chamber experiments
Ciarelli G., Aksoyoglu S., El Haddad I., Bruns E. A., Crippa M., Poulain L., Aijala M., Carbone S., Freney E., O'Dowd C., Baltensperger U., Prevot A. S. H. (2017), Modelling winter organic aerosol at the European scale with CAMx: evaluation and source apportionment with a VBS parameterization based on novel wood burning smog chamber experiments, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 7653-7669.
Primary emissions and secondary aerosol production potential from woodstoves for residential heating: Influence of the stove technology and combustion efficiency
Bertrand A., Stefenelli G., Bruns E. A., Pieber S. M., Temime-Roussel B., Slowik J. G., Prevot A. S. H., Wortham H., El Haddad I., Marchand N. (2017), Primary emissions and secondary aerosol production potential from woodstoves for residential heating: Influence of the stove technology and combustion efficiency, in Atmospheric Environment, 169, 65-79.
Time-resolved analysis of primary volatile emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential from a small-scale pellet boiler
Czech H., Pieber S. M., Tiitta P., Sippula I., Kortelainen M., Lamberg H., Grigonyte J., Streibel T., Prevot A. S. H., Jokiniemi J., Zimmermann R. (2017), Time-resolved analysis of primary volatile emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential from a small-scale pellet boiler, in Atmospheric Environment, 158, 236-245.
Identification of significant precursor gases of secondary organic aerosols from residential wood combustion
Bruns Emily A., El Haddad Imad, Slowik Jay G., Kilic Dogushan, Klein Felix, Baltensperger Urs, Prevot Andre S. H. (2016), Identification of significant precursor gases of secondary organic aerosols from residential wood combustion, in Scientific Reports, 1-9.
Inorganic Salt Interference on CO2+ in Aerodyne AMS and ACSM Organic Aerosol Composition Studies
Pieber Simone M., El Haddad Imad, Slowik Jay G., Canagaratna Manjula R., Jayne John T., Platt Stephen M., Bozzetti Carlo, Daellenbach Kaspar R., Frohlich Roman, Vlachou Athanasia, Klein Felix, Dommen Josef, Miljevic Branka, Jimenez Jose L., Worsnop Douglas R., Baltensperger Urs, Prevot Andre S. H. (2016), Inorganic Salt Interference on CO2+ in Aerodyne AMS and ACSM Organic Aerosol Composition Studies, in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 50(19), 10494-10503.
Transformation of logwood combustion emissions in a smog chamber: formation of secondary organic aerosol and changes in the primary organic aerosol upon daytime and nighttime aging
Tiitta Petri, Leskinen Ari, Hao Liqing, Yli-Pirila Pasi, Kortelainen Miika, Grigonyte Julija, Tissari Jarkko, Lamberg Heikki, Hartikainen Anni, Kuuspalo Kari, Kortelainen Aki-Matti, Virtanen Annele, Lehtinen Kari E. J., Komppula Mika, Pieber Simone, Prevot Andre S. H., Onasch Timothy B., Worsnop Douglas R., Czech Hendryk, Zimmermann Ralf, Jokiniemi Jorma, Sippula Olli (2016), Transformation of logwood combustion emissions in a smog chamber: formation of secondary organic aerosol and changes in the primary organic aerosol upon daytime and nighttime aging, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, (20), 13251-13269.
Characteristics and temporal evolution of particulate emissions from a ship diesel engine
Mueller Laarnie, Jakobi Gert, Czech Hendryk, Stengel Benjamin, Orasche Juergen, Arteaga-Salas Jose M., Karg Erwin, Elsasser Michael, Sippula Olli, Streibel Thorsten, Slowik Jay G., Prevot Andre S. H., Jokiniemi Jorma, Rabe Rom, Harndorf Horst, Michalke Bernhard, Schnelle-Kreis Juergen, Zimmermann Ralf (2015), Characteristics and temporal evolution of particulate emissions from a ship diesel engine, in APPLIED ENERGY, 155, 204-217.
Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads
Bruns E. A., Krapf M., Orasche J., Huang Y., Zimmermann R., Drinovec L., Mocnik G., El-Haddad I., Slowik J. G., Dommen J., Baltensperger U., Prevot A. S. H. (2015), Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, (5), 2825-2841.
Inter-comparison of laboratory smog chamber and flow reactor systems on organic aerosol yield and composition
Bruns E. A., El Haddad I., Keller A., Klein F., Kumar N. K., Pieber S. M., Corbin J. C., Slowik J. G., Brune W. H., Baltensperger U., Prevot A. S. H. (2015), Inter-comparison of laboratory smog chamber and flow reactor systems on organic aerosol yield and composition, in ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, (6), 2315-2332.
Particulate Matter from Both Heavy Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel Shipping Emissions Show Strong Biological Effects on Human Lung Cells at Realistic and Comparable In Vitro Exposure Conditions
Oeder Sebastian, Kanashova Tamara, Sippula Olli, Sapcariu Sean C., Streibel Thorsten, Arteaga-Salas Jose Manuel, Passig Johannes, Dilger Marco, Paur Hanns-Rudolf, Schlager Christoph, Mulhopt Sonja, Diabate Silvia, Weiss Carsten, Stengel Benjamin, Rabe Rom, Harndorf Horst, Torvela Tiina, Jokiniemi Jorma K., Hirvonen Maija-Riitta, Schmidt-Weber Carsten, Traidl-Hoffmann Claudia, Berube Kelly A., Wlodarczyk Anna J., Prytherch Zoe, Michalke Bernhard (2015), Particulate Matter from Both Heavy Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel Shipping Emissions Show Strong Biological Effects on Human Lung Cells at Realistic and Comparable In Vitro Exposure Conditions, in PLOS ONE, (6), 1-17.
High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China
Huang Ru-Jin, Zhang Yanlin, Bozzetti Carlo, Ho Kin-Fai, Cao Jun-Ji, Han Yongming, Daellenbach Kaspar R., Slowik Jay G., Platt Stephen M., Canonaco Francesco, Zotter Peter, Wolf Robert, Pieber Simone M., Bruns Emily A., Crippa Monica, Ciarelli Giancarlo, Piazzalunga Andrea, Schwikowski Margit, Abbaszade Guelcin, Schnelle-Kreis Juergen, Zimmermann Ralf, An Zhisheng, Szidat Soenke, Baltensperger Urs, El Haddad Imad (2014), High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China, in NATURE, 514(7521), 218-222.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
JRC Ispra Italy (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
HICE Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Carnegie Mellon, Pittsburgh United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
157806 Time-of-Flight Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ToF-ACSM) 01.03.2015 R'EQUIP
169787 Source Apportionment of Organics in ambient air including Primary, Secondary Organic Aerosols and trace Gases (SAOPSOAG) 01.03.2017 Project funding

Abstract

Wood burning and shipping emissions represent two poorly understood sources of primary and secondary organic aerosol (POA and SOA) that have potentially serious health and environmental effects. Emissions from deep sea transport vessels are a serious environmental problem due to high heavy metal and condensed aromatic hydrocarbon content. Neither the detailed POA composition nor the SOA-forming potential have yet been investigated in enough detail. Although the direct emissions from wood combustion are well studied, investigation of SOA formation has only recently begun and the current knowledge is still rather fragmentary and poor. A clear deficiency is the need to study the ageing of the exhaust, including the SOA production, at temperatures relevant for the winter time conditions when such domestic emissions are particularly important. A comprehensive and unprecedented combination of instruments, some recently developed, will be used in this study to analyze the carbonaceous particles.. The aim of the ship emissions component of the study is the consideration of the total aerosol produced by ship diesel motors operated with HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil) in comparison e.g. MGO (Marine Gas Oil), including both directly emitted aerosol and aerosol produced via plume ageing. This requires detailed chemical characterization of directly emitted substances and also those substance produced by direct ageing of emitted particles, gas-phase reactions, and the interaction of the gaseous and liquid/solid phase at the particle surface. This last process includes SOA formation, a potentially major and poorly characterized source of OA mass from ship emissions. Therefore these gas-particle-interactions will be studied under controlled conditions in a recently-developed mobile smogchamber. This novel approach enables combining the direct sampling of real ship emissions with the controlled aging conditions achievable in conventional (stationary) smogchambers. As research on emissions form deep-sea navigation are only just beginning, measurement of the physicochemical properties of the direct particle emissions are valuable of themselves, while the controlled aging experiments in the mobile smogchamber are completely new. The utility of these experiments will be enhanced by studying the effects of different fuels on the produced POA and SOA. For the wood burning experiments, the purpose is the quantitative characterization of the total aerosol produced under conditions relevant for wintertime domestic wood burning. While much effort has been devoted to studying wood burning POA, wood burning SOA is not well understood.. Further, wood burning studies have not been previously conducted at lower temperatures (i.e. ~0 °C), which is expected to influence SOA formation, portioning of SOA and POA, and the ageing processes of components such as ROS. Experiments at these temperatures will lead to more realistic results that are crucial for accurate description of the important partitioning effects affecting organic molecules. For both systems, the gas/particle interactions discussed above and their effect on particle composition will be studied using a comprehensive set of on-line and off-line analytical techniques. Important aims include the quantification and chemical characterization of POA and SOA, estimation of health effects via measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and assessment of the stability of individual organic markers. Such measurements represent a new effort in the study of ship diesel emissions, while extension of wood burning ageing measurements to low temperatures is expected to have significant effects on these important properties.
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