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Seismology of the Sun, Variability of Solar Irradiance, and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere

English title Seismology of the Sun, Variability of Solar Irradiance, and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere
Applicant Schmutz Werner
Number 140573
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos und Weltstrahlungszentrum
Institution of higher education Physikal.-Meteorolog. Observatorium Davos - PMOD
Main discipline Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2012 - 31.03.2014
Approved amount 360'000.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy

Keywords (7)

helioseismology; solar physics; solar irradiance; sun-climate connection; terrestrial middle atmosphere; solar chromospere; solar corona

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

In its function as World Radiation Center the PMOD/WRC deals with all aspects of radiation - from manufacturing instruments that measure radiation to the interpretation of the terrestrial radiation energy budget. The space experiments built by PMOD/WRC rely directly on the expert know how of the institute. The present research projects are aimed at understanding the influence of the Sun on the terrestrial climate. The latter is in the central focus of today's world-wide climate research and is termed "Space Weather" if the emphasis is on short term events and it is termed "Space Climate", if terrestrial climate implications are investigated. From the point of view of the space based research, the most interesting aspect is that the radiance output of the Sun itself is variable. The goal of solar physics research at PMOD/WRC is therefore, to measure these variations, in particular in the UV, and to advance our understanding of the origin of these variations in order to be able to reconstruct the solar influence on the climate in the past. The project supports three aims:

A) Quality assurance and calibration of the measurement from active space experiments. The launch of PROBA2 with our experiment LYRA occurred on November 2, 2009 and the launch of PICARD with our experiment PREMOS was on June 15, 2010. Thus, including VIRGO on SOHO, which is operational since 1996, we are operating three PMOD/WRC space experiments.

B) Scientific exploitation of PREMOS/PICARD observations. We focus on reproducing the observed irradiance variations with synthetic solar models. The aim is to understand the relative contributions to the irradiance variations made by different activity regions on the Sun. These contributions are very different depending what spectral range is investigated. UV and radio radiation originates from the chromosphere and the corona, whereas variations in the visual range are produced by solar activity in the photosphere.

C) Scientific exploitation of the observed irradiance variations. The project is aimed at the analysis of the widely discussed mechanism connecting solar UV variability with ozone and climate. We intend to simulate the response of temperature, neutral and charged species in the terrestrial middle atmosphere to short-term solar irradiance variability.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Correlation of spectral solar irradiance with solar activity as measured by VIRGO
Wehrli C., Schmutz W., Shapiro A. I. (2013), Correlation of spectral solar irradiance with solar activity as measured by VIRGO, in ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, 556, L3.
Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) 190-222 nm Spectral Band
Shapiro A. V., Shapiro A. I., Dominique M., Dammasch I. E., Wehrli C., Rozanov E., Schmutz W. (2013), Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) 190-222 nm Spectral Band, in SOLAR PHYSICS, 286(1), 289-301.
Eclipses Observed by Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) - A Sensitive Tool to Test Models for the Solar Irradiance
Shapiro A. I., Schmutz W., Dominique M., Shapiro A. V. (2013), Eclipses Observed by Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) - A Sensitive Tool to Test Models for the Solar Irradiance, in SOLAR PHYSICS, 286(1), 271-287.
Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL
Egorova T., Rozanov E., Groebner J., Hauser M., Schmutz W. (2013), Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 13(7), 3811-3823.
On-Orbit Degradation of Solar Instruments
BenMoussa A., Gissot S., Schuehle U., Del Zanna G., Auchere F., Mekaoui S., Jones A. R., Walton D., Eyles C. J., Thuillier G., Seaton D., Dammasch I. E., Cessateur G., Meftah M., Andretta V., Berghmans D., Bewsher D., Bolsee D., Bradley L., Brown D. S., Chamberlin P. C., Dewitte S., Didkovsky L. V., Dominique M., Eparvier F. G. (2013), On-Orbit Degradation of Solar Instruments, in SOLAR PHYSICS, 288(1), 389-434.
Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling
Ermolli I., Matthes K., de Wit T. Dudok, Krivova N. A., Tourpali K., Weber M., Unruh Y. C., Gray L., Langematz U., Pilewskie P., Rozanov E., Schmutz W., Shapiro A., Solanki S. K., Woods T. N. (2013), Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 13(8), 3945-3977.
Role of external factors in the evolution of the ozone layer and stratospheric circulation in 21st century
Zubov V., Rozanov E., Egorova T., Karol I., Schmutz W. (2013), Role of external factors in the evolution of the ozone layer and stratospheric circulation in 21st century, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 13(9), 4697-4706.
SPICE EUV spectrometer for the Solar Orbiter mission
Fludra A., Griffin D., Caldwell M., et al. many authors among them PMOD/WRC, Gyo M., Büchel V., Haberreiter M., Pfiffner D., Schmutz W. (2013), SPICE EUV spectrometer for the Solar Orbiter mission, in Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation V, Proceedings of SPIE, USA.
The LYRA Instrument Onboard PROBA2: Description and In-Flight Performance
Dominique M., Hochedez J. -F., Schmutz W., Dammasch I. E., Shapiro A. I., Kretzschmar M., Zhukov A. N., Gillotay D., Stockman Y., BenMoussa A. (2013), The LYRA Instrument Onboard PROBA2: Description and In-Flight Performance, in SOLAR PHYSICS, 286(1), 21-42.
The role of the solar irradiance variability in the evolution of the middle atmosphere during 2004-2009
Shapiro A. V., Rozanov E. V., Shapiro A. I., Egorova T. A., Harder J., Weber M., Smith A. K., Schmutz W., Peter T. (2013), The role of the solar irradiance variability in the evolution of the middle atmosphere during 2004-2009, in JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 118(9), 3781-3793.
Total solar irradiance measurements with PREMOS/PICARD
Schmutz Werner, Fehlmann André, Finsterle Wolfgang, Kopp Greg, Thuillier Gérard (2013), Total solar irradiance measurements with PREMOS/PICARD, in Radiation Processes in the Atmosphere and Ocean, Proceedings of IRS2012, AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing Melville, NY, USA.
Signature of the 27-day solar rotation cycle in mesospheric OH and H2O observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder
Shapiro A. V., Rozanov E., Shapiro A. I., Wang S., Egorova T., Schmutz W., Peter Th. (2012), Signature of the 27-day solar rotation cycle in mesospheric OH and H2O observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 12(7), 3181-3188.
The EUI instrument on board the Solar Orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation
Halain J. -P., Rochus P., Renotte E., Appourchaux T., Berghmans D., Harra L., Schuehled U., Schmutz W., Auchere F., Zhukov A., Dumesnil C., Delmotte F., Kennedy T., Mercier R., Pfiffner D., Rossi L., Tandy J., BenMoussa A., Smith P. (2012), The EUI instrument on board the Solar Orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation, in SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2012: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY, 8443(eid: 84430), 1.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
IAC ETH-ZH, Prof. Dr. Thomas Peter Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
ETH.ZH, Inst. of Astronomy, Prof. Dr. Marcella Carollo ETH-ZH Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
EMPA, Prof. Dr. Jürg Beer Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
ESA space projects Belgium (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
CNES space projects France (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
NASA space projects United States of America (North America)
- Research Infrastructure

Awards

Title Year
The International Kristian Birkeland medal for Space Weather and Space Climate for outstanding scientific or technological results. 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
147659 Future and Past Solar Influence on the Terrestrial Climate II 01.01.2014 Sinergia
132520 Swiss Solar Radio Flux Monitor: Technology demonstration and physical understaning of the solar irradiance at radio frequencies 01.09.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
130102 Seismology of the Sun, Variability of Solar Irradiance and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere 01.04.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)
149182 Study of factors influencing ozone layer evolution (SILA) 01.01.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
130642 Future and Past Solar Influence on the Terrestrial Climate 01.09.2010 Sinergia
153302 Variability of Solar Irradiance and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere 01.04.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
153302 Variability of Solar Irradiance and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere 01.04.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Research at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, PMOD/WRC, is connected to solar radiation in all aspects: From manufacturing space and ground based instruments that measure radiation to the interpretation of the influence of solar radiation on the terrestrial radiation energy budget. The present research projects are aimed at understanding the influence of the Sun on the terrestrial climate. From the point of view of the space based research, the most interesting aspect is that the radiance output of the Sun itself is variable. The goal of solar physics research at PMOD/WRC is therefore, to measure these variations, in particular in the UV, to advance our understanding of the origin of these variations, and to evaluate the inpact of the solar variability on the terrestrial climate.This proposal asks for a continuation of the long-term SNSF support of the exploitation of measurements obtained by space experiments that have been built at PMD/WRC. The proposal comprises three subprojects:A)Quality assurance and calibration of the measurement from active space experiments. The launch of PROBA2 with our experiment LYRA was at November 2, 2009, and the launch of PICARD with our experiment PREMOS occurred June 27, 2010. Thus, including VIRGO on SoHO, which is operational since 1996, we to take care of three PMOD/WRC experiments that will continue to be operational during the funding period of this proposal.B)Scientific exploitation of PREMOS/PICARD observations. The Quasi-biennial periodicity on top of the 11-year one is thought to be the visible manifestation of a second dynamo mechanism, due to the strong latitudinal shear at 0.95 solar radius. We plan to investigate the properties of this suspected second dynamo mechanism by means of acoustic mode of oscillations. The latitudinal dependence of the signal over the solar cycle, the possible link between the 2-year periodicity signal over the low activity phase, and the strength of the upcoming cycle by the main dynamo are the main features we aim to characterize. The findings will help to develop improved dynamo models takeing into account a second solar dynamo.C)Scientific exploitation of LYRA/PROBA2 and PREMOS/PICARD data. There are clear and significant observations in the terrestrial atmosphere that show the response to the decadal solar variability. However, despite intensive research efforts in the past decade in the area of solar-climate relationship, this response still cannot be properly simulated. In the frame of the proposed project we intend to concentrate on the effects of the short-term (days-to-month) solar variability. We will simulate time series of the middle atmospheric temperature and gas species with chemistry-climate model SOCOL using a number of the observed and reconstructed spectral solar irradiance data sets. The analysis of the middle atmospheric response to the 27-day solar cycle will be performed taking into account the fact that the solar signature can be masked by the internal variability of the atmosphere. The separation of the solar signal from internal variability will be done using recently developed statistical methods. An extensive validation of the model results against the observation data (e.g. MIPAS/ENVISAT,MLS/AURA) is integral part of the project. A new version CCM SOCOL, which has improved performance, will be used to repeat previous experiments and we will compute case studies with UV irradiance input that is obtained from the PREMOS/PICARD measurements.
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