Project

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Direct doping of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires

English title Direct doping of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires
Applicant Fontcuberta i Morral Anna
Number 137648
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Laboratoire des matériaux semiconducteurs EPFL - STI - IMX - LMSC
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Material Sciences
Start/End 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014
Approved amount 392'220.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Material Sciences
Condensed Matter Physics

Keywords (4)

nanowires; semiconductor; doping; electronic properties

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

Semiconductor nanowires are filamentary crystals with a diameter between a few and ~100 nm. Thanks to their special geometry and dimensions, they constitute one of the most promising building blocks for next generations of electronic and optoelectronic devices.  For this to become a reality, there are some questions to be answered. One of them concerns the controlled introduction of impurities (doping) for the engineering of the electrical properties. While doping in silicon nanowires has achieved a mature understanding, doping of III-V semiconductor nanowires is still an area of intensive research. Indeed, their structure and growth methods exhibit a more complex nature.

In this project we address the precise control of the conductivity of nanowires by impurity doping. The nanowires will be synthesized by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Our growth method avoids the use of gold as nucleation seed – gold is usually used for nanowire growth. The advantages of our technique are: (i) the possibility of working with ultra-high purity materials and (ii) the wide range of possibilities that MBE offers in terms of sample design for obtaining axial and radial heterostructures. By investigating ultra-high purity nanowires, we will be sure that the measured effects originate from intentional doping and not from spurious effects caused by unwanted impurities (or defects). The project is organized around two main aspects: the synthesis and the investigation of the structural and functional properties. The main techniques that will be used are: Raman Spectroscopy (resonant and non-resonant), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, cantilever magnetometry and electronic transport as a function of temperature from 300 down to 300 mK . We want to answer the following questions:

  • Is it possible to tune the growth conditions to: (i) avoid doping compensation and (ii) achieve that Si is incorporated mainly as a donor in the nanowire core?
  • How do the doping mechanisms of C and Be on GaAs compare with Si?
  • Is the control of the crystalline phase compatible with doping?
  • Can one design new nanowire (hetero)structures that increase the carrier mobility and doping efficiency?
In conclusion, at the end of this project it is our goal to have achieved a fundamental understanding of the doping mechanisms in GaAs nanowires and how heterostructure design can be applied for the improvement of the electronic properties. We expect that the results will be applicable to other synthesis techniques such as Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition and provide a new frame that will offer new perspectives for research on one dimensional structures.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Modulation doping of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with effective passivation and high electron mobility
Boland Jessica L, Conesa-Boj Sonia, Parkinson P, Tutuncuoglu Gözde, Matteini Federico, Rüffer Daniel, Casadei Alberto, Amaduzzi Francesca, Jabeen Fauzia, Davies HJ, Joyce Hannah J, Hertz Laura, Fontcuberta i Morral Anna, Johnston Michael B (2015), Modulation doping of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with effective passivation and high electron mobility, in Nano Letters, 15, 1336-1342.
Polarization response of nanowires à la carte
Casadei Alberto, Alarcon-Llado Esther, Amaduzzi Francesca, Russo-Averchi Eleonora, Rüffer Daniel, Heiss Martin, Dal Negro Luca, Fontcuberta i Morral Anna (2015), Polarization response of nanowires à la carte, in Scientific Reports, 5, 7651.
Photonic Plasmonic Coupling of GaAs Single Nanowires to Optical Nanoantennas
Casadei Alberto, Pecora Emanuele F, Trevino Carlo, Rüffer Daniel, Russo-Averchi Eleonoar, Matteini Federico, Tutuncuoglu Gözde, Heiss Martin, Fontcuberta i Morral Anna, Dal Negro Luca (2014), Photonic Plasmonic Coupling of GaAs Single Nanowires to Optical Nanoantennas, in Nano Letters, 14, 2271-2278.
Probing inhomogeneous composition in core/shell nanowires by Raman spectroscopy
Amaduzzi Francesca, Alarcon-Llado Esther, Russo-Averchi Eleonora, Matteini Federico, Heiss Martin, Tutuncuoglu Gözde, Conesa-Boj Sonia, de la Mata Maria, Arbiol Jordi, Fontcuberta i Morral Anna (2014), Probing inhomogeneous composition in core/shell nanowires by Raman spectroscopy, in Journal of Applied Physics, 116, 184303.
Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be doped GaAs nanowires
. Casadei P. Krogstrup M. Heiss C. Colombo J.A. Röhr S. Upadhyay C.B. Sørensen J. Nygård A. (2013), Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be doped GaAs nanowires, in Applied Physics Letters, 102, 013117.
Electrical transport in C-doped GaAs nanowires: surface effects
Casadei Alberto, Schwender Jil, Russo-Averchi Eleonora, Rüffer Daniel, Alarcon-Llado Esther, Jabeen Fauzia, Heiss Martin, Ramezanni Mohamed, Nielsch Kornelius, Fontcuberta Morral Anna (2013), Electrical transport in C-doped GaAs nanowires: surface effects, in Physica Status Solidi, Rapid Research Letters, 7(10), 890-893.
Single nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit
Krogstrup Peter, Jorgensen Henrik J, Heiss Martin, Demichel Olivier, Holm Jeppe V, Aagasen Martin, Nygard Jesper, Fontcuberta Morral Anna (2013), Single nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit, in Nature Photonics, 7(-), 306-310.
’Time-resolved photo-thermoelectric and transport currents
4. L. Prechtel M. Padilla N. Erhard H. Karl G. Abstreiter A. Fontcuberta i Morral A.W. Holleit (2012), ’Time-resolved photo-thermoelectric and transport currents, in Nano Letters, 12, 2337.
An Electrically-Driven GaAs Nanowire Surface Plasmon Source’
3. P. Fan C. Colombo K.C.Y. Huang P. Krogstrup J. Nygård A. Fontcuberta i Morral M. Brongersma (2012), An Electrically-Driven GaAs Nanowire Surface Plasmon Source’, in Nano Letters, 12, 4943.
Vertical III-V V-shaped membranes epitaxially grown on a patterned Si[001] substrate and their enhanced light scattering
2. S. Conesa-Boj E. Russo-Averchi A. Dalmau-Mallorqui J. Trevino E.F. Pecora C. Forestiere... (2012), Vertical III-V V-shaped membranes epitaxially grown on a patterned Si[001] substrate and their enhanced light scattering, in ACS Nano, 6, 10982.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Oxford University Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. D. Zumbühl, U. Basel Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. B. Deveaud-Pledran/EPFL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Boston University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Peter Krogstrup, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen Denmark (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Dr. D. Grundler/ Technische Universität München Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Physics department/EPFL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Nanowire growth workshop and Nanowires Poster Study of GaAs/AlGaAs optical properties by Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopies 25.08.2014 Eindhoven, Netherlands Amaduzzi Francesca;
Nanowire growth workshop and Nanowires Talk given at a conference Nanowire/nanoantennas: unconventional light interaction 25.08.2014 Eindhoven, Netherlands Casadei Alberto;
Fall MRS Poster Raman spectroscopy in AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires 01.12.2013 Boston, United States of America Amaduzzi Francesca; Fontcuberta i Morral Anna;
ICON Talk given at a conference Electrical an doptical properties of GaAs nanwoires and their plasmon coupling with nanoantennas 23.09.2013 Annecy, France Fontcuberta i Morral Anna; Casadei Alberto;
EMRS Talk given at a conference P-type doping mechanims in GaAs nanowires 25.05.2013 Strasbourg, France Casadei Alberto;
Groupement de Recherche GDR Nanofils Poster Raman spectroscopy in GaAs nanowires 01.04.2013 Montpelier, France Amaduzzi Francesca;
Groupement de Recherche GDR Nanofils Talk given at a conference Doping in GaAs nanowires 01.04.2013 Montpelier, France Casadei Alberto;
International Conference on Semiconductor Physics Talk given at a conference GaAs nanowires for solar energy applications 29.07.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Fontcuberta i Morral Anna; Casadei Alberto;
international conference on nanoscience and technology Poster Raman characterization of semiconductor nanowires 23.07.2012 Paris, France Zweifel Ludovit;
Villa Conference on Energy Material and Nanotechnology Talk given at a conference GaAs nanowires for solar energy applications 14.04.2012 Orlando, USA, United States of America Fontcuberta i Morral Anna;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
7th Nanowire growth workshop 10.06.2013 EPFL, Switzerland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
144985 Setup for high-frequency characterization of nanoelectronic devices 01.12.2012 R'EQUIP
121758 Catalyst-free direct doping of MBE grown III-V nanowires 01.01.2009 Project funding
157739 Setup for advanced transport characterisation of nanoelectronic devices 01.12.2014 R'EQUIP
144954 Cryogen-free scanning confocal microscopy for direct-correlation between structure and function. 01.05.2013 R'EQUIP
156081 Direct doping of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires 01.01.2015 Project funding
172547 Towards a higher conversion efficiency in III-V nanowire-based solar cells 01.11.2017 Project funding

Abstract

Semiconductor nanowires are filamentary crystals with a diameter between a few and ~100 nm. Thanks to their special geometry and dimensions, they constitute one of the most promising building blocks for next generations of electronic and optoelectronic devices. For this to become a reality, there are some questions to be answered. One of them concerns the controlled introduction of impurities (doping) for the engineering of the electrical properties. While doping in silicon nanowires has achieved a mature understanding, doping of III-V semiconductor nanowires is still an area of intensive research. Indeed, their structure and growth methods exhibit a more complex nature.In this project we address the precise control of the conductivity of nanowires by impurity doping. The nanowires will be synthesized by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Our growth method avoids the use of gold as nucleation seed - gold is usually used for nanowire growth. The advantages of our technique are: (i) the possibility of working with ultra-high purity materials and (ii) the wide range of possibilities that MBE offers in terms of sample design for obtaining axial and radial heterostructures. By investigating ultra-high purity nanowires, we will be sure that the measured effects originate from intentional doping and not from spurious effects caused by unwanted impurities (or defects). The project is organized around two main aspects: the synthesis and the investigation of the structural and functional properties. The main techniques that will be used are: Raman Spectroscopy (resonant and non-resonant), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, cantilever magnetometry and electronic transport as a function of temperature from 300 down to 300 mK . We want to answer the following questions:•Is it possible to tune the growth conditions to: (i) avoid doping compensation and (ii) achieve that Si is incorporated mainly as a donor in the nanowire core?•How do the doping mechanisms of C and Be on GaAs compare with Si? •Is the control of the crystalline phase compatible with doping? •Can one design new nanowire (hetero)structures that increase the carrier mobility and doping efficiency?In conclusion, at the end of this project it is our goal to have achieved a fundamental understanding of the doping mechanisms in GaAs nanowires and how heterostructure design can be applied for the improvement of the electronic properties. We expect that the results will be applicable to other synthesis techniques such as Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition and provide a new frame that will offer new perspectives for research on one dimensional structures.
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