The new large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, which ultimately will collide protons with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, restarted its operations in mid-November 2009. For the whole year, the machine has run for physics data taking by increasing its collision energy at a regular pace and without any incident.
Four large and three small detectors measure the reaction products at the collision points of the LHC and analyse the data to extract physics. Since the mid-nineties and with an enormous effort, the world-wide particle physicist community has designed, developed, constructed and installed these experiments. They will exploit the physics at the TeV scale, which will shed light on the nature of electro-weak symmetry breaking and where supersymmetric particles or extra special dimensions may be discovered. Switzerland, through substantial involvement of the Universities of Berne, Geneva and Zurich, of ETHZ and EPFL as well as of PSI, significantly contributed to three of the large experiments.
They are operated by the scientist, who have built them. Additional support is provided by CERN in its role as the host laboratory of the LHC accelerator. The associated "Maintenance and Operation cost" (M&O) are composed of a) the daily running and maintenance expenses, and b) the provision of the scientific and technical manpower to ensure operations and the good working order of the sub-detector systems for the whole lifetime of the experiment of about 10 years.
The 2011 M&O cost had been examined by a scrutiny group and were approved by the international Resources Review Board RRB during its meeting on 11-13 October 2010. Each institute participating in this project is required to take a share, which is proportional to its contribution to the detector(s).
This FORCE request is coordinated by CHIPP (Swiss Institute for Particle Physics) and is a joint request from of all Swiss institutes active in the LHC detector construction and operation. It summarises the Swiss contributions to the three LHC detector's design, construction, commissioning, operation and physics exploitation, explains CERN's concept of maintenance and operation (including funding mechanisms) and gives an overview of the costs for 2011, which the Swiss institutes are supposed to cover (according to the RRB agreement).