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Evaporation from terrestrial surfaces - linking pore scale phenomena with landscape processes

Applicant Or Dani
Number 135077
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Terrestrische Ökosysteme ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Hydrology, Limnology, Glaciology
Start/End 01.08.2011 - 30.09.2015
Approved amount 361'509.00
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Keywords (3)

evaporation; porous media; atmosphere coupling

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

Lay summary - )SoilEvapEvaporation from terrestrial surfaces - linking pore scale phenomena with landscape processes (

 

Brief Summary (About 40 words)

Evaporation determines the amounts of water sent to the atmosphere and what is left for plants and life in soils. We address new fundamental aspects of evaporative water losses from porous surfaces that define landscape scale fluxes and drying dynamics.  

 

Abstract (100-150 words)

Evaporation rates and patterns affect energy balance of terrestrial surfaces and drive the hydrologic cycle. Evaporative losses define plant physiological function through transpiration, and affect available water for plants and microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Despite the importance of drying for many natural and engineering applications, predictions remain a challenge. The project addresses links between soil properties and evaporation dynamics upscaling fluxes from discrete pores as a surface progressively dries out to macroscopic evaporative losses from terrestrial surfaces. New and unaccounted-for phenomena such as the roles of surface topography and heterogeneity on enhanced evaporative losses would be considered at hydrologic scales. We will pursue a research strategy combining theoretical and modeling with field scale experiments.

 

Goal (50-70 words)

The project would provide new information and upscaling schemes for bridging the gap between porous medium controls at laboratory and field scales and would broaden the physical basis for: (i) quantifying coupling between soil and atmosphere (mass and energy fluxes); (ii) accounting for processes controlling spatio-temporal patterns of evaporative losses (heterogeneity and topography); and (iii) developing physically-based boundary conditions for operational hydrologic and climatic large scale models.

 

Significance (50-100 words)

As key component in the Earth’s hydrologic and energy balances, physically-based large scale parameterization are critical for developing predictive capabilities to link soil properties and conditions with future evaporative losses. These are not only important for present day land and water resource management, but also for future climate change scenarios in which soil surface interactions are known to play a critical role.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Pore-scale study of thermal fields during evaporation from drying porous surfaces
Aminzadeh Milad, Or Dani (2017), Pore-scale study of thermal fields during evaporation from drying porous surfaces, in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , 1189.
A generalized complementary relationship between actual and potential evaporation defined by a reference surface temperature
Aminzadeh Milad, Roderick Michael, Or Dani (2016), A generalized complementary relationship between actual and potential evaporation defined by a reference surface temperature, in Water Resources Research, 385.
Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange
Lehmann Peter, Or Dani (2015), Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange, in New Phytologist, 207(4), 1015-1025.
Evaporation from wavy porous surfaces into turbulent airflows
Haghighi Erfan, Or Dani (2015), Evaporation from wavy porous surfaces into turbulent airflows, in Transport in Porous Media, 225.
Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces
Haghighi Erfan, Or Dani (2015), Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces, in Journal of Hydrology, 103.
Linking evaporative fluxes from bare soils across surface viscous sublayer with the Monin-Obukhov atmospheric flux-profile estimates
Haghighi Erfan, Or Dani (2015), Linking evaporative fluxes from bare soils across surface viscous sublayer with the Monin-Obukhov atmospheric flux-profile estimates, in Journal of Hydrology, 525, 684-693.
Thermal signatures of turbulent airflows interacting with evaporating thin porous surfaces
Haghighi Erfan, Or Dani (2015), Thermal signatures of turbulent airflows interacting with evaporating thin porous surfaces, in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 429.
Turbulence-induced thermal signatures over evaporating bare soil surfaces
Haghighi Erfan, Or Dani (2015), Turbulence-induced thermal signatures over evaporating bare soil surfaces, in Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 5325-5336.
Energy partition dynamics of drying terrestrial surfaces
Aminzadeh Milad, Or Dani (2014), Energy partition dynamics of drying terrestrial surfaces, in Journal of Hydrology, 519, 1257-1270.
Advances in soil evaporation physics - a review
Or Dani, Lehmann Peter, Shahraeeni Ebrahim, Shokri Nima (2013), Advances in soil evaporation physics - a review, in Vadose Zone Journal, 12, 1-16.
Effect of wetness patchiness on evaporation dynamics from drying porous surface
Lehmann Peter, Or Dani (2013), Effect of wetness patchiness on evaporation dynamics from drying porous surface, in Water Resources Research, 49, 8250-8262.
Evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent airflows: Coupling eddy characteristics with pore scale vapor diffusion
Haghighi Erfan, Or Dani (2013), Evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent airflows: Coupling eddy characteristics with pore scale vapor diffusion, in Water Resources Research, 49, 8432-8442.
Evaporation rates across a convective air boundary layer are dominated by diffusion
Haghighi Erfan, Shahraeeni Ebrahim, Lehmann Peter, Or Dani (2013), Evaporation rates across a convective air boundary layer are dominated by diffusion, in Water Resources Reserach, 49, 1602-1610.
Temperature dynamics during nonisothermal evaporation from drying porous surfaces
Aminzadeh Milad, Or Dani (2013), Temperature dynamics during nonisothermal evaporation from drying porous surfaces, in Water Resources Research, 49, 7339-7349.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Institut für Wasser- und Umweltsystemmodellierung Uni Stuttgart Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Soil capillary and wettability properties affect evaporation dynamics and give rise to a characteris Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Michael Roderick, Research School of Earth Sciences and Research School of Biology Australia (Oceania)
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting 2015 Poster Experimental and theoretical pore-scale study of thermal field responses to drying of porous surfaces 12.12.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Aminzadeh Milad; Or Dani;
7th International Conference on Porous Media & Annual Meeting (Interpore 2015) Poster Dynamics of Thermal Fields around Evaporating Pores - Experimental and Theoretical Pore Scale Study of Drying Porous Surfaces 18.05.2015 Padua, Italy, Italy Lehmann Peter; Aminzadeh Milad; Or Dani;
7th International Conference on Porous Media & Annual Meeting (Interpore 2015) Poster Thermal signatures and evaporative fluxes from regular wavy porous surfaces into turbulent airflows 18.05.2015 Padua, Italy Haghighi Erfan; Or Dani;
International Society for Porous Media (Interpore 2015) Poster Dynamics of thermal fields around evaporating pores - experimental and theoretical pore-scale study of drying porous surfaces 18.05.2015 Padua, Italy Lehmann Peter; Or Dani; Aminzadeh Milad;
Workshop on Interfaces and Interfacial Displacement in Unsaturated Porous Media (2015) Talk given at a conference Evaporative fluxes from wavy porous surfaces 19.03.2015 Potsdam, Germany Haghighi Erfan; Or Dani;
American Geophysical Union-Fall Meeting 2014 Poster The role of bluff-body roughness elements on turbulent evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces: Effects of momentum and energy partitioning 15.12.2014 San Francisco, United States of America Aminzadeh Milad; Haghighi Erfan; Or Dani;
EGU General Assembly 2014 Poster Characteristic lengths for evaporation suppression from patchy porous surfaces 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Or Dani; Lehmann Peter;
EGU General Assembly 2014 Poster Effects of surface roughness on evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent airflows 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Haghighi Erfan; Or Dani;
AGU fall meeting 2013 Poster Prediction of energy partitioning over evaporating terrestrial surfaces 10.12.2013 San Francisco, United States of America Aminzadeh Milad; Or Dani;
AGU Fall Meeting 2013 Poster Rapid surface thermal signatures for estimation of evaporative fluxes into turbulent flows 10.12.2013 San Francisco, United States of America Or Dani; Haghighi Erfan;
ZHydro seminar 2013 Poster Surface thermal signatures of turbulent evaporative fluxes 13.11.2013 Zurich, Switzerland Or Dani; Haghighi Erfan;
EGU General Assembly 2013 Talk given at a conference The role of pore clusters (wet patches) on evaporation dynamics from drying porous surfaces 08.04.2013 Vienna, Austria Lehmann Peter; Or Dani;
EGU General Assemply 2013 Poster Temperature dynamics during drying of porous surfaces (non-isothermal evaporation) 08.04.2013 Vienna, Austria Or Dani; Aminzadeh Milad;
EGU general Assembly 2013 Poster Evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent air flows-On the coupling of momentum and thermal signatures 08.04.2013 Vienna, Austria Or Dani; Haghighi Erfan;
ZHydro seminar 2012 Poster Evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent air flow-Thermal signatures of local evaporation 15.11.2012 Zurich, Switzerland Or Dani; Haghighi Erfan;
Gordon Research Conferences: Flow & Transport in Permeable Media Poster Thermal signatures of diffusive evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces into turbulent air flow-Coupling eddies with vapor diffusion 24.06.2012 Les Diablerets, Switzerland, Switzerland Or Dani; Haghighi Erfan;
Gordon Research Conferences: Flow & Transport in Permeable Media Talk given at a conference Evaporative coupling between patchy wet surfaces and air boundary layer 24.06.2012 Les Diablerets, Switzerland Or Dani; Lehmann Peter;
EGU General Assembly 2012 Talk given at a conference Pore scale model for evaporation dynamics from soil surfaces with patchy wetness 22.04.2012 Vienna, Austria Or Dani; Lehmann Peter;
EGU General Assembly 2012 Poster From pores to eddies-Linking diffusion-based evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces with a turbulent air boundary layer 22.04.2012 Vienna, Austria Haghighi Erfan; Or Dani;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
113676 Evaporation from porous media - microscale study of the dynamics and morphology of drying fronts 01.01.2007 Project funding (Div. I-III)
172493 Evaporation suppression from water reservoirs using floating covers: scientific basis and design considerations 01.08.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Evaporation rates and patterns affect energy balance of terrestrial surfaces and drive the hydrologic cycle. Evaporative losses define plant physiological function through transpiration, and affect available water for plants and microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Notwithstanding the prominence of evaporative drying for many natural and engineering applications, prediction of drying rates from porous media remain a challenge due to interactions between energy and atmospheric conditions (radiation, humidity, temperature, air velocity) and porous medium properties often resulting in abrupt transitions and complex dynamics. The working hypothesis is that through proper integration of porous medium small-scale physical processes (elucidated in the previous SNSF project) affecting phase continuity, gradients and flows, and surface wetness dynamics, the prediction of evaporation patterns and fluxes at larger scales would be improved. Additionally, emergent and unaccounted-for phenomena such as surface topography and heterogeneity-enhanced evaporative losses would be considered at operational hydrologic scales. The objective is to quantify the role of porous media properties and processes in large scale evaporative losses using model-based upscaling schemes guided by experiments. We envision two primary lines of research supporting two PhD projects. One would focus on theory, laboratory and field experiments to quantify effects of soil textural heterogeneity that are hypothesized to enhance evaporative losses at field scale, and a related topic of evaporation from sloping surfaces to assess whether surface topography significantly affects evaporative losses (relative to flat surfaces). The other PhD student would focus on an important yet understudied role of surface wetness on rates of vapor transfer from wet pores across atmospheric viscous sub-layer (next to surface) using combination of modeling, wind tunnel experiments, and detailed field studies. Both PhD projects are ultimately aimed at upscaling and deriving parameterization schemes for hydrologic modeling at field scale. In collaboration with colleagues in Jülich we plan to combine dielectric (radar, radiometer, TDR) measurements of surface water content with thermal imagery at field scale to directly quantify evaporation rates from texturally heterogeneous soil surfaces under natural conditions. Results of this project are expected to provide data and upscaling schemes for bridging the gap between porous medium controls at laboratory and field scales and would provide the physical basis for: (i) quantifying coupling between soil and atmosphere (mass and energy fluxes); (ii) account for processes controlling spatio-temporal patterns of evaporative losses (heterogeneity and topography); and (iii) develop physically-based boundary conditions for operational hydrologic and climatic continuum models. Derivation of large scale parameterization with process-based boundary conditions linking soil with atmosphere and surface energy would be particularly important for models predicting processes under future climate change scenarios in which soil surface interactions are known to play a critical role.
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