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Nonlinear dynamics origins of psychoacoustics from the Hopf amplifier concept

Applicant Stoop Rudolf
Number 132881
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Institut für Neuroinformatik Universität Zürich Irchel und ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Other disciplines of Physics
Start/End 01.01.2011 - 31.12.2012
Approved amount 152'049.00
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Keywords (8)

Nonlinear dynamics of hearing; Auditory Perception; Cochlea Modeling; Nonlinear Dynamics; Low-dimensional Dynamical Systems; Electronic Sensoring; Biophysics; Neural Networks

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
From arriving sound waves, the mammalian auditory system extracts rich portraits of the auditory environment. The current stage of technological implementation of this ability is predominantly based on classical linear signal processing, embedded into a framework of complicated central processor theories of perception.The ear and the microphone are, however, fundamentally divergent systems: While microphones and other recording devices are essentially passive, the biological ear is a very complex nonlinear apparatus providing a great quantity of signal pre-processing mechanisms. Later on in the auditory pathway, the biological processing makes heavy use of collective, self-organizing processes. These two key elements used by nature have not yet been exploited by artificial auditory systems. To provide an optimal solution to both the problem of understanding the auditory system at a fundamental level, and the technological implementation of its analysis and processing capabilities, we follow a radically new paradigm based on simpler nonlinear dynamics modeling.Our main hypothesis is that most of the important hearing features can be understood and coded in terms of robust properties of moderately low dimensional dynamical systems. As a proof of concept, we will implement with this paradigm a platform that at the initial stage will reproduce three important aspects of natural hearing: biomorphic nonlinear cochlear amplification, otoacoustic emissions, and pitch detection coded in the robust structure of three-frequency resonant systems. The expandable integrated hard- and software platform will be constructed on the basis of known mesoscopic nonlinear principles. It will be used not only as a test-bench for accepted concepts, but also as a predictive tool for unresolved aspects and to explore the dynamical basis of less understood auditory features such as phase insensitivity, timbre, rhythm, harmony, etc. This will pave the way for their implementation in working applications. Our recently developed Hopf cochlea already implements these principles, working in real, continuous time. Cortical-like decision elements will similarly be based on nonlinear dynamics. The success of our Hopf cochlea demonstrates the validity of the approach. Possible applications of this research reach from hearing aids and cochlea implants to speech recognizers, cellular telephones and auditory manufacturing monitoring. For further information, see http://stoop.ini.uzh.ch/.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
A full computation-relevant topological dynamics classification of elementary cellular automata
Schüle Martin, Stoop Ruedi (2012), A full computation-relevant topological dynamics classification of elementary cellular automata, in Chaos, 22, 1-11.
Shrimps: Occurrence, scaling and relevance
Stoop Ruedi, Martignoli Stefan, Benner Phillipp, Stoop Ralph Lukas, Uwate Yoko (2012), Shrimps: Occurrence, scaling and relevance, in International Journal of Bifurcation & Chaos, 22, 1-13.
Flies outsmart men
Stoop Ruedi, Stoop Ralph Lukas, Bunimovich Leonid A. (2012), Flies outsmart men, in IEEE-explore NDES Conference proceedings, Wolfenbüttel.
Amplitude Analysis of Frustrated Systems of Coupled Oscillators
Uwate Yoko, Nishio Yoshifumi, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Amplitude Analysis of Frustrated Systems of Coupled Oscillators, in Proc. of the IEICE Nolta Conference, Palma de Mallorca.
Cortical Columns for Quick Brains
Stoop Ralph Lukas, Saase Victor, Stoop Britta, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Cortical Columns for Quick Brains, in Proc. of the IEICE Nolta Conference, Palma de Mallorca.
Turning the Hopf Cochlea into a Listener
Gomez Florian, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Turning the Hopf Cochlea into a Listener, in Proc. of the IEICE Nolta Conference, Palma de Mallorca.
Computational Aspects of Elementary Cellular Automata
Schüle Martin, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Computational Aspects of Elementary Cellular Automata, in IEEE-explore NDES Conference proceedings, Wolfenbüttel, Deutschland.
Time-Discrete Nonlinear Cochlea Model implemented on DSP for Auditory Studies,
Reit Marco, Mathis Wolfgang, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Time-Discrete Nonlinear Cochlea Model implemented on DSP for Auditory Studies,, in IEEE-explore NDES Conference proceedings, Wolfenbüttel.
Tuning the Hopf Cochlea Towards Listening
Gomez Florian, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Tuning the Hopf Cochlea Towards Listening, in NDES IEEE-explore Conference proceedings,, Wolfenbüttel, Deutschland.
Desired Sounds by Tuning a Complex Network of Nonlinear Hopf Nodes
Stoop Ruedi, Gomez Florian (2012), Desired Sounds by Tuning a Complex Network of Nonlinear Hopf Nodes, in 3rd IFAC Conference on automatic control, Cancun, Mexico.
Measuring the exposure to sound samples in subjective experiments
Liang Yan, Kean Chen, Gomez Florian, Stoop Ruedi (2012), Measuring the exposure to sound samples in subjective experiments, in J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 131(4), 3259.
Tuning the Hopf Cochlea towards a listener
Gomez Florian, Saase Victor, Buchheim Nikolaus, Bumann Richard, Yan Liang (2012), Tuning the Hopf Cochlea towards a listener, in J. Acoust. Soc. Am. , 131(4), 3268.
Sound Analyzer Based on a Biomorphic Design
Stoop R., Kern A., van der Vyver Johannes Petrus (Jan-Jan), Uvate Y. (2012), Sound Analyzer Based on a Biomorphic Design, US Patent Office, usa.
Quantitative assessment of the log-log-step method for pattern detection in noise-prone environments.
Gomez Florian, Stoop Ruedi (2011), Quantitative assessment of the log-log-step method for pattern detection in noise-prone environments., in PloS one, 6(12), 28107-28107.
Quantitative Assessment of the Log-Log-Step Method for Pattern Detection in Noise-Prone Environments
Gomez Florian, Stoop Ruedi (2011), Quantitative Assessment of the Log-Log-Step Method for Pattern Detection in Noise-Prone Environments, in PLoS One, 6(12), 1-7.
Principles and Typical Computational Limitations of Sparse Speaker Separation Based on Deterministic Speech Features
Kern A, Stoop R, Mathis W., Stoop R. (2011), Principles and Typical Computational Limitations of Sparse Speaker Separation Based on Deterministic Speech Features, in NEURAL COMPUTATION, 23(9), 2358-2389.
Is the Origin of Intelligence Rooted in a Higher Language Class? A Nonlinear Dynamics approach.
Stoop Ruedi, Nüesch Patrick, Stoop Ralph Lukas (2011), Is the Origin of Intelligence Rooted in a Higher Language Class? A Nonlinear Dynamics approach., in Dynamic Days 2011. Conference proceedings, Oldenburg, Deutschland.
Biased Clustering Due to Intrinsic Nonlinear Dynamics Structures
Stoop Ralph Lukas, Ott Thomas, di Pietro Gianni, Stoop Ruedi (2011), Biased Clustering Due to Intrinsic Nonlinear Dynamics Structures, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications (NOLTA2011), Kobe, Japan.
Cortical Microcircuits Have No Distinguished Role in LSM Information Processing
Victor Saase, Stoop Ruedi (2011), Cortical Microcircuits Have No Distinguished Role in LSM Information Processing, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications (NOLTA2011), Kobe, Japan.
Log-Log-Step Method for Detection of Patterns Within Randomness
Gomez Florian, Stoop Ruedi (2011), Log-Log-Step Method for Detection of Patterns Within Randomness, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications (NOLTA2011), Kobe, Japan.
Transduction of Cochlear Oscillations into Spikes in a Mesoscopic Nonlinear Model of the Peripheral Hearing System
Martignoli Stefan, Stoop Ruedi (2011), Transduction of Cochlear Oscillations into Spikes in a Mesoscopic Nonlinear Model of the Peripheral Hearing System, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications (NOLTA2011), Kobe, Japan.
Shrimps predict failure of main bioinformatics algorithms
Stoop Ruedi (2011), Shrimps predict failure of main bioinformatics algorithms, in INDS, Klagenfurth, Österreich.
Analysis of the ’Sonar Hopf’ cochlea.
Kern A. (2011), Analysis of the ’Sonar Hopf’ cochlea., in Sensors , 11, 5808-5818.
Mesocopic comparison of complex networks based on periodic orbits
Stoop R, Joller J (2011), Mesocopic comparison of complex networks based on periodic orbits, in CHAOS, 21(1), 016112-1-016112-8.
Ansätze zur Ordnungsreduktion von nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen zur Anwendung im Schaltungsentwurf
Reit M., Bremer J.-K., Mathis W., Stoop R., Stoop R.L., Stoop R. (2011), Ansätze zur Ordnungsreduktion von nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen zur Anwendung im Schaltungsentwurf, in Adv. Radio Sci., 8, 151-160.
Mesocopic comparison of complex networks based on periodic orbits
Stoop Ruedi, Joller Josef (2011), Mesocopic comparison of complex networks based on periodic orbits, in Chaos, 21, 1-8.
Beyond scale-free small-world networks: Cortical columns for quick brains
Stoop Ralph Lukas, Saase Victor, Wagner Clemens, Stoop. Britta, Stoop Ruedi, Beyond scale-free small-world networks: Cortical columns for quick brains, in Physical Review Letters, March, 8., 2013.
Shrimps: Occurrence, scaling and relevance
Stoop R., Martignoli S., Shrimps: Occurrence, scaling and relevance, in Int. Journal of Bifurcation & Chaos.

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Nolta 2012 23.10.2012 Palma de Mallorca, Spanien
A Keith number meeting 08.09.2012 Faro de Ses Salines. Majorca, Spain
Experimental Chaos Conference 2012 16.05.2012 Ann Arbor, USA
Scientific Computing Workshop 10.12.2011 Singapore
Dynamic Days of Europe 12.09.2011 Oldenburg, Deutschland
NOLTA 2011 04.09.2011 Kobe, Japan
ISTET/INDS Klagenfurth 25.07.2011 Klagenfurth, Österreich
Billards2011 07.02.2011 Ubatuba, Brasilien


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Complex Systems 2012 24.08.2012 Lavin, Schweiz
Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems, Wolfenbüttel 11.07.2012 Wolfenbüttel, Deutschland

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
6. CI-IG Forum 12.11.2011 St. Gallen


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Complex Systems 2012 24.08.2012 Lavin, Schweiz

Awards

Title Year
Nolta Best Paper Award, PostDoc 2011
Nolta Best Student Award 2011

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
147010 Fundaments of human hearing from nonlinear dynamics 01.05.2013 Project funding
122276 From hearing towards listening: A bioinspired autonomous feedback control Hopf hearing system. 01.01.2009 Project funding
147010 Fundaments of human hearing from nonlinear dynamics 01.05.2013 Project funding

Abstract

2.1 Research plan summaryA crucial target in emergent ICT technologies [1] is the design of robots and machines adapted not only to communicate semantically with people, but also capable of interpreting the semantic content in the correct emotional context. On the side of vision, the eye as the sensor has been essentially paralleled by cameras as image capturing devices, making such a context accessible [2]. For hearing, the current common approach based predominantly on classical linear signal processing or on very detailed implementations of biophysical devices, has failed to produce a comparable context; the very complicated central processor theories of perception have not led as yet to efficient implementations within the current technologies. The ear and the current microphone systems are fundamentally divergent: in construction, functionality and performance. While microphones and other recording devices are essentially passive systems designed only to convert linearly sound pressure into an electric voltage, the biological ear is a very complex and nonlinear dynamical apparatus that not only detects sounds but also provides a great quantity of sound signal preprocessing mechanisms. As a remedy, we will focus on nonlinear principles rather than on implementation technologies of hearing. Auditory processing in biological systems makes heavy use of collective, self-organizing processes being central manifestations of nonlinear dynamics principles. It is this key element exploited by nature, that has not been realised in the complex neurally based implementations of artificial auditory systems. In this project we propose a radically new paradigm based precisely on simpler nonlinear dynamics modelling to provide an optimal solution to both the problem of understanding the auditory system at a fundamental level, and the technological implementation of its analysis and processing capabilities. Our main hypothesis is that most of the important features of hearing can be understood and coded in terms of robust properties of moderately low dimensional dynamical systems. As a proof of concept, we will implement with this paradigm an expandable integrated hardware/software platform that at this stage will reproduce three important aspects of natural hearing: a) biomorphic cochlear stimulation amplitude enhancement and compression, from cochlea sections operating in the vicinity of Hopf bifurcations, b) otoacoustic emissions that are the consequences of the eventual self-oscillatory behaviour of these sections and c) pitch detection, coded in the robust structure of three-frequency resonant systems. An expandable integrated hardware/software platform will be constructed on the basis of nonlinear dynamics. Being fully accessible on all levels, it will be used at different stages of its completion not only as a test-bench for accepted concepts, but also as a predictive tool for unresolved aspects and to explore the dynamical basis of less understood auditory features, paving the way for their implementation in working applications. In accordance with the foundational character of the approach we will pursue a cross-disciplinary research effort to understand and implement other aspects of sound perception that have not been fully explored under this paradigm, such as timbre, rhythm, harmony, etc. The goal is to build a fully bio-inspired hearing system, implemented according to known mesoscopic nonlinear principles.Our recently developed cochlea already implements these principles and works in real, continuous time. In the same spirit, also cortical-like decision elements will be based on nonlinear dynamics (if needed, down to simple neurons that themselveves are strongly nonlinear devices). The success of our Hopf cochlea, published in top journals of mathematics, physics, nonlinear science, biology, and engineering, demonstrates the validity of our approach. References 2.1:[1] Formulated, e.g., by Google in their ‘Machine Hearing’ project.[2] e.g. the widely used face coding systems.
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