Project

Back to overview

Community history and ecosystem functioning

English title Community history and ecosystem functioning
Applicant Schmid Bernhard
Number 130720
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Institut für Umweltwissenschaften Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Ecology
Start/End 01.04.2010 - 31.03.2013
Approved amount 788'288.00
Show all

Keywords (14)

community assembly; ecosystem functioning; biodiversity; evolution; plant ecology; biodiversity effect; combining ability; grassland community; plant-soil feedback; home-away effect; soil community; soil pathogens; community history; Evolution, Grassland community

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
It is conceivable that specific interaction networks among species develop over time in natural plant communities, making them more productive and more stable than newly assembled communities. The aim of this project is to test if such effects of community history can be detected after 8 years in experimental grassland communities of the "Jena Experiment", a large biodiversity research platform in Germany.In a fist subproject we will test if selection for increased combining ability occurs if different species are growing together in mixed communities for a prolonged time. We will compare this selection regime providing a common community history with the results of selection of the two species in separate monocultures. In addition, we expect that newly established mixed communities will have higher yield if they contain plants that have been selected in mixtures rather than monocultures. If the tests were positive, it would suggest that 8 years of differential survival and reproduction in mixtures vs. monocultures can select for genotypes with high vs. low interspecific combining abilities.In a second subproject we will re-assemble the same experimental communities as established 8 years ago on the original plots of the Jena Experiment with plants taken from the 8-year old communities of the same plot (common plant history) or from the supplier which provided the original seeds in 2001 and with unsterilized (common soil history) or sterilized soil taken from the same plots. Here the prediction is that biodiversity effects based on complementary resource use and interactions with soil organisms will be stronger in re-assembled communities with common history. These communities should also be more stable temporally (in terms of invasibility, species abundances) than those without common history.Measurements will focus on plant individuals and communities (survival, growth, morphology, reproduction, biomass); soil abiotic and biotic variables will be assessed in collaboration with other groups. Data will be analyzed with general linear models and mixed-model analysis of variance. The proposed research should contribute to the basic questions of how tightly integrated plant communities are and whether integration increases during community development (evolution of combining ability, plant-soil community assembly processes). A better understanding of these questions is essential because they are related to the management of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Complementarity among four highly productive grassland species depends on resource availability
Roscher Christiane, Schmid Bernhard, Kolle Olaf, Schulze Ernst-Detlef (2016), Complementarity among four highly productive grassland species depends on resource availability, in OECOLOGIA, 181(2), 571-582.
Convergent high diversity in naturally colonized experimental grasslands is not related to increased productivity
Roscher Christiane, Schumacher Jens, Petermann Jana S., Fergus Alexander J. F., Gerighausen Uta, Michalski Stefan G., Schmid Bernhard, Schulze Ernst-Detlef (2016), Convergent high diversity in naturally colonized experimental grasslands is not related to increased productivity, in PERSPECTIVES IN PLANT ECOLOGY EVOLUTION AND SYSTEMATICS, 20, 32-45.
Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects
Zuppinger-Dingley Debra, Flynn Dan F. B., De Deyn Gerlinde B., Petermann Jana S., Schmid Bernhard (2016), Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects, in ECOLOGY, 97(4), 918-928.
Predicting stochastic community dynamics in grasslands under the assumption of competitive symmetry
Lohier Theophile, Jabot Franck, Weigelt Alexandra, Schmid Bernhard, Deffuant Guillaume (2016), Predicting stochastic community dynamics in grasslands under the assumption of competitive symmetry, in JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY, 399, 53-61.
A functional trait-based approach to understand community assembly and diversity-productivity relationships over 7 years in experimental grasslands
Roscher C, Schumacher J, Lipowsky A, Gubsch M, Weigelt A, Pompe S, Kolle O, Buchmann N, Schmid B, Schulze E-D (2013), A functional trait-based approach to understand community assembly and diversity-productivity relationships over 7 years in experimental grasslands, in Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 15(3), 139-149.
Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly
Allan E, Jenkins T, Fergus AJF, Roscher C, Fischer M, Petermann J, Weisser WW, Schmid B (2013), Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly, in Ecology, 94(2), 465-477.
Kinetic Energy of Throughfall in Subtropical Forests of SE China - Effects of Tree Canopy Structure, Functional Traits, and Biodiversity
Geißler C, Nadrowski K, Kühn P, Baruffol M, Bruelheide H, Schmid B, Scholten T (2013), Kinetic Energy of Throughfall in Subtropical Forests of SE China - Effects of Tree Canopy Structure, Functional Traits, and Biodiversity, in PLoS ONE, 8(2), 1-8.
Predicting ecosystem stability from community composition and biodiversity
de Mazancourt C, Isbell F, Larocque A, Berendse F, De Luca E, Grace JB, Haegeman B, Wayne Polley H, Roscher C, Schmid B, Tilman D, van Ruijven J, Weigelt A, Wilsey BJ, Loreau M (2013), Predicting ecosystem stability from community composition and biodiversity, in Ecology Letters, 16(5), 617-625.
Soil Environmental Conditions and Microbial Build-Up Mediate the Effect of Plant Diversity on Soil Nitrifying and Denitrifying Enzyme Activities in Temperate Grasslands
Le Roux X, Schmid B, Poly F, Barnard RL, Niklaus PA, Guillaumaud N, Habekost M, Oelmann Y, Philippot L, Salles JF, Schloter M, Steinbeiss S, Weigelt A (2013), Soil Environmental Conditions and Microbial Build-Up Mediate the Effect of Plant Diversity on Soil Nitrifying and Denitrifying Enzyme Activities in Temperate Grasslands, in PLoS ONE, 8(4), 1-11.
What happens to the sown species if a biodiversity experiment is not weeded?
Roscher C, Fergus AJF, Petermann JS, Buchmann N, Schmid B, Schulze E-D (2013), What happens to the sown species if a biodiversity experiment is not weeded?, in Basic and Applied Ecology, 14, 187-198.
Density-independent mortality and increasing plant diversity are associated with differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-strategists
Lipowsky A, Roscher C, Schumacher J, Schmid B (2012), Density-independent mortality and increasing plant diversity are associated with differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-strategists, in PLoS ONE, 7(1), 1-9.
Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success
Albrecht M, Schmid B, Hautier Y, Müller CB (2012), Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success, in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279(1748), 4845-4852.
Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades
Reich PB, Tilman D, Isbell F, Mueller K, Hobbie SE, Flynn DFB, Eisenhauer N (2012), Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades, in Science, 336(6081), 589-592.
Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades.
Reich P.B., Tilman D., Isbell F., Mueller K., Hobbie S., Flynn D.F.B., Eisenhauer N. (2012), Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades., in Science, 2012(336), 589-552.
Mechanisms promoting tree species co-existence: Experimental evidence with saplings of subtropical forest ecosystems of China
Lang AC, Härdtle W, Baruffol M, Böhnke M, Bruelheide H, Schmid B, von Wehrden H, von Oheimb G (2012), Mechanisms promoting tree species co-existence: Experimental evidence with saplings of subtropical forest ecosystems of China, in Journal of Vegetation Science, 23(5), 837-846.
Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures
Zeller SL, Kalinina O, Flynn DFB, Schmid B (2012), Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures, in Ecological Applications, 22(6), 1817-1826.
Plant diversity and generation of ecosystem services at the landscape scale: Expert knowledge assessment
Quijas S, Jackson LE, Maass M, Schmid B, Raffaelli D, Balvanera P (2012), Plant diversity and generation of ecosystem services at the landscape scale: Expert knowledge assessment, in Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(4), 929-940.
Plant traits affecting herbivory on tree recruits in highly diverse subtropical forests
Schuldt A, Bruelheide H, Durka W, Eichenberg D, Fischer M, Kröber W, Härdtle W, Ma K, Michalski SG, Palm W-U, Schmid B, Welk E, Zhou H, Assmann T (2012), Plant traits affecting herbivory on tree recruits in highly diverse subtropical forests, in Ecology Letters, 15(7), 732-739.
Relationship between reproductive allocation and relative abundance among 32 species of a Tibetan alpine meadow: Effects of fertilization and grazing
Niu K, Schmid B, Choler P, Du G (2012), Relationship between reproductive allocation and relative abundance among 32 species of a Tibetan alpine meadow: Effects of fertilization and grazing, in PLoS ONE, 7(4), 1-6.
Testing the Link between Functional Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning in a Minnesota Grassland Experiment
Clark CM, Flynn DFB, Butterfield BJ, Reich PB (2012), Testing the Link between Functional Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning in a Minnesota Grassland Experiment, in PLoS ONE, 7(12), 1-11.
Using plant functional traits to explain diversity-productivity relationships
Roscher C, Schumacher J, Gubsch M, Lipowsky A, Weigelt A, Buchmann N, Schmid B, Schulze E-D (2012), Using plant functional traits to explain diversity-productivity relationships, in PLoS ONE, 7(5), 1-11.
Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity.
Wagg Cameron, Jansa Jan, Schmid Bernhard, van der Heijden Marcel G A (2011), Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity., in Ecology letters, 14(10), 1001-9.
BUGS in the analysis of biodiversity experiments: species richness and composition are of similar importance for grassland productivity.
Hector Andy, Bell Thomas, Hautier Yann, Isbell Forest, Kéry Marc, Reich Peter B, van Ruijven Jasper, Schmid Bernhard (2011), BUGS in the analysis of biodiversity experiments: species richness and composition are of similar importance for grassland productivity., in PloS one, 6(3), 17434-17434.
Community assembly during secondary forest succession in a Chinese subtropical forest
Bruelheide H, Bohnke M, Both S, Fang T, Assmann T, Baruffol M, Bauhus J, Buscot F, Chen XY, Ding BY, Durka W, Erfmeier A, Fischer M, Geissler C, Guo DL, Guo LD, Hardtle W, He JS, Hector A, Krober W, Kuhn P, Lang AC, Nadrowski K, Pei KQ, Scherer-Lorenzen M (2011), Community assembly during secondary forest succession in a Chinese subtropical forest, in ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS, 81(1), 25-41.
Competitive performance of transgenic wheat resistant to powdery mildew.
Kalinina Olena, Zeller Simon L, Schmid Bernhard (2011), Competitive performance of transgenic wheat resistant to powdery mildew., in PloS one, 6(11), 28091-28091.
Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species.
Gubsch Marlén, Buchmann Nina, Schmid Bernhard, Schulze Ernst-Detlef, Lipowsky Annett, Roscher Christiane (2011), Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species., in Annals of botany, 107(1), 157-69.
Effect of Connectivity Between Restoration Meadows on Invertebrates with Contrasting Dispersal Abilities
Knop E, Herzog F, Schmid B (2011), Effect of Connectivity Between Restoration Meadows on Invertebrates with Contrasting Dispersal Abilities, in RESTORATION ECOLOGY, 19, 151-159.
Field trials with genetically modified powdery mildew-resistant wheat
Foetzki A, Winzeler M, Boller T, Felber F, Gruissem W, Keel C, Keller B, Mascher F, Maurhofer M, Nentwig W, Romeis J, Sautter C, Schmid B, Bigler F (2011), Field trials with genetically modified powdery mildew-resistant wheat, in AGRARFORSCHUNG SCHWEIZ, 2(10), 446-453.
Foliar and soil δ15N values reveal increased nitrogen partitioning among species in diverse grassland communities.
Gubsch Marlén, Roscher Christiane, Gleixner Gerd, Habekost Maike, Lipowsky Annett, Schmid Bernhard, Schulze Ernst-Detlef, Steinbeiss Sibylle, Buchmann Nina (2011), Foliar and soil δ15N values reveal increased nitrogen partitioning among species in diverse grassland communities., in Plant, cell & environment, 34(6), 895-908.
Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.
Rieben Silvan, Kalinina Olena, Schmid Bernhard, Zeller Simon L (2011), Gene flow in genetically modified wheat., in PloS one, 6(12), 29730-29730.
Genotypic richness and dissimilarity opposingly affect ecosystem functioning
Jousset A, Schmid B, Scheu S, Eisenhauer N (2011), Genotypic richness and dissimilarity opposingly affect ecosystem functioning, in ECOLOGY LETTERS, 14(6), 537-545.
High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services
Isbell F, Calcagno V, Hector A, Connolly J, Harpole WS, Reich PB, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Schmid B, Tilman D, van Ruijven J, Weigelt A, Wilsey BJ, Zavaleta ES, Loreau M (2011), High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services, in NATURE, 477(7363), 199-199.
Identifying population- and community-level mechanisms of diversity-stability relationships in experimental grasslands
Roscher C, Weigelt A, Proulx R, Marquard E, Schumacher J, Weisser WW, Schmid B (2011), Identifying population- and community-level mechanisms of diversity-stability relationships in experimental grasslands, in JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 99(6), 1460-1469.
In their native range, invasive plants are held in check by negative soil-feedbacks
Zuppinger-Dingley Debra, Schmid Bernhard, Chen Yahan, Brandl Helmut, van der Heijden Marcel G. A., Joshi Jasmin (2011), In their native range, invasive plants are held in check by negative soil-feedbacks, in Ecosphere, 2(5), 1-12.
Legume species differ in the responses of their functional traits to plant diversity
Roscher C, Schmid B, Buchmann N, Weigelt A, Schulze ED (2011), Legume species differ in the responses of their functional traits to plant diversity, in OECOLOGIA, 165(2), 437-452.
Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant-plant competition.
Wagg Cameron, Jansa Jan, Stadler Marina, Schmid Bernhard, van der Heijden Marcel G A (2011), Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant-plant competition., in Ecology, 92(6), 1303-13.
Predator Diversity and Abundance Provide Little Support for the Enemies Hypothesis in Forests of High Tree Diversity
Schuldt A, Both S, Bruelheide H, Hardtle W, Schmid B, Zhou HZ, Assmann T (2011), Predator Diversity and Abundance Provide Little Support for the Enemies Hypothesis in Forests of High Tree Diversity, in PLOS ONE, 6(7), 1-8.
Selection for monoculture and mixture genotypes in a biodiversity experiment
Lipowsky A, Schmid B, Roscher C (2011), Selection for monoculture and mixture genotypes in a biodiversity experiment, in BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY, 12(4), 360-371.
Soil environmental conditions rather than denitrifier abundance and diversity drive potential denitrification after changes in land uses
Attard E, Recous S, Chabbi A, De Berranger C, Guillaumaud N, Labreuche J, Philippot L, Schmid B, Le Roux X (2011), Soil environmental conditions rather than denitrifier abundance and diversity drive potential denitrification after changes in land uses, in GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, 17(5), 1975-1989.
Transgenic Pm3b wheat lines show resistance to powdery mildew in the field.
Brunner Susanne, Hurni Severine, Herren Gerhard, Kalinina Olena, von Burg Simone, Zeller Simon L, Schmid Bernhard, Winzeler Michael, Keller Beat (2011), Transgenic Pm3b wheat lines show resistance to powdery mildew in the field., in Plant biotechnology journal, 9(8), 897-910.
Plant diversity enhances provision of ecosystem services: A new synthesis
Quijas S, Schmid B, Balvanera P (2010), Plant diversity enhances provision of ecosystem services: A new synthesis, in BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY, 11(7), 582-593.
Plant diversity effects on grassland productivity are robust to both nutrient enrichment and drought
Craven Dylan, Isbell Forest, Manning Pete, Connolly John, Bruelheide Helge, Ebeling Anne, Roscher Christiane, van Ruijven Jasper, Weigelt Alexandra, Wilsey Brian, Beierkuhnlein Carl, de Luca Enrica, Griffin John N., Hautier Yann, Hector Andy, Jentsch Anke, Kreyling Juergen, Lanta Vojtech, Loreau Michel, Meyer Sebastian T., Mori Akira S., Naeem Shahid, Palmborg Cecilia, Polley H. Wayne, Reich Peter B., Plant diversity effects on grassland productivity are robust to both nutrient enrichment and drought, in PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 371(1694).

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
147092 Community history, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning 01.04.2013 Project funding

Abstract

Biodiversity experiments have shown that the functioning of ecosystems can be reduced if species are lost from the system. For example, productivity and stability of plant communities generally increase with plant species richness in such experiments. What remains unclear is how well the experimental communities represent natural communities. It is conceivable that specific interaction networks among species develop over time in natural communities, making these communities more productive and more stable than newly assembled experimental communities of similar species richness. I would like to test if such developments already occurred over a time-span of 8 years in the Jena Experiment, a large biodiversity research platform in Germany.My hypotheses are that evolutionary (Project A) and ecological (Project B) processes can lead to changed interactions between plant species in communities of different species richness and composition. In Project A we will test whether seed offspring of populations of two species which grew for 8 years together in mixture (common community history) will have increased performance when again grown in mixture (= interspecific combining ability) compared with the case where each of the two species grew for 8 years in monoculture (or with different species in mixture). In addition, we will test if four-species mixtures have lower performance if established with seeds taken from 8-year old monocultures rather than mixtures. If the tests were positive, it would suggest that 8 years of differential survival and reproduction in mixtures vs. monocultures can select for genotypes with high vs. low interspecific combining abilities.In Project B we will re-assemble the same experimental communities as established 8 years ago on the original plots of the Jena Experiment with plants taken from the 8-year old communities of the same plot (common plant history) or from the supplier which provided the original seeds in 2001 and with unsterilized (common soil history) or sterilized soil taken from the same plots. All soil will receive a standard microbial inoculum and left unplanted during winter to leach out nutrients that appeared during sterilization. Here the prediction is that biodiversity effects based on complementary resource use and interactions with soil organisms will be stronger in re-assembled communities with common history. These communities should also be more stable temporally (in terms of invasibility, species abundances) than those without common history.Experiments will be carried out at the field site in Jena and in the experimental garden and glasshouse of the Institute of Environmental Sciences in Zurich. Measurements will focus on plant individuals and communities (survival, growth, morphology, reproduction, biomass); soil abiotic and biotic variables will be assessed in collaboration with other groups. Data will be analyzed with general linear models and mixed-model analysis of variance.The proposed research should contribute to the basic questions of how tightly integrated plant communities are (e.g. neutral vs. niche structured) and whether integration increases during community development (evolution of combining ability, plant-soil community assembly processes). A better understanding of these questions is essential because they are related to the management of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
-