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Microresonators based Frequency combs in the visible and infrared

English title Microresonators based Frequency combs in the visible and infrared
Applicant Kippenberg Tobias Jan
Number 130047
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Laboratoire de photonique et mesures quantiques EPFL - STI - IEL - LPQM2
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Other disciplines of Physics
Start/End 01.06.2010 - 31.01.2013
Approved amount 362'060.00
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Keywords (3)

Optical frequency combs; microresonators; Metrology

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
The development of optical frequency combs has lead over the past decades to major advancements in the ability to measure optical frequency with unprecedented accuracy. Optical frequency combs are the essential clockworks for optical atomic clocks which have enabled to surpass the Cs primary standard. Moreover, optical frequency combs have lead to advances in broadband molecular spectroscopy laser spectroscopy and have been a pivotal tool for the generation of attosecond laser pulses. Moreover, frequency combs have recently been demonstrated to provide superior calibration to astrophysical spectrometers used in the search for extra-solar planets. Indeed, optical frequency combs have become valuable tools in many studies, but are at present still only used in comparatively few laboratories (mostly metrological institutes or institutes such as JILA at NIST or the MPQ within the Max Planck Society). This proposal seeks to establish a laboratory at EPFL which has fiber based optical frequency comb and the concomitant frequency metrology expertise. With a commercial optical frequency comb (which is sold by the market leader, Menlo Systems GmbH, a spin-off from the frequency comb research of T.W. Hänsch) the PI will not only be able to engage in metrology studies and research that makes use of an optical frequency comb, but importantly continue research previously carried out with the infrastructure at the former host institution, the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. Among the studies that will be enabled by this tool is the development of an entirely new frequency comb generator based on optical microresonators. A novel approach was developed in the lab of the PI, demonstrating a comb generator based entirely on nonlinear frequency conversion in ultra-high-Q optical micro-resonators. This approach offers significant reduction in size, power consumption, foot-print and moreover enables to operate at previously unattainable repetition rate in the range beyond 10 GHz. A remaining challenge is however to achieve an octave spanning frequency comb on a chip, which would allow phase stabilization of the spectrum using the well established techniques such as the f-2f interferometer. These studies will be carried out in the laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements at EPFL, but can only be carried out provided the necessary scientific infrastructure is present, which is granted by this REquip proposal.With our research we aim at making unprecedently compact, efficient and broadband frequency comb generators that can be used in a wide variety of applications in both fundamental science and technology.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Temporal solitons in optical microresonators
Herr T., Brasch V., Jost J. D., Wang C. Y., Kondratiev N. M., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2014), Temporal solitons in optical microresonators, in NATURE PHOTONICS, 8(2), 145-152.
Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Crystalline Microresonators
Wang Christine, Herr Tobias, Del'Haye Pascal, Schliesser Albert, Hofer Johannes, Holzwarth Ronald, Hänsch Theodor, Picqué Nathalie, Kippenberg Tobias (2013), Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Crystalline Microresonators, in Nature Communications, 4, 1345-0.
Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer depositionDeposition
Riemensberger Johann, Hartinger Klaus, Herr Tobias, Brasch Victor, Holzwarth Ronald, Kippenberg Tobias (2012), Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer depositionDeposition, in Optics Express, 20(25), 27661-27669.
Dual-mode temperature compensation technique for laser stabilization to a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator
Fescenko Ilya, Alnis Janis, Schliesser Albert, Wang Christine, Kippenberg Tobias, Hänsch Theodor (2012), Dual-mode temperature compensation technique for laser stabilization to a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator, in Optics Express, 20(17), 19185-19193.
Mid-infrared frequency combs
A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch (2012), Mid-infrared frequency combs, in Nature Photonics, 6, 440-449.
Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators
T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C.Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, T. J. Kippenberg (2012), Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators, in Nature Photonics, 6, 480-487.
Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs
Kippenberg T. J., Holzwarth R., Diddams S. A. (2011), Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs, in SCIENCE, 332(6029), 555-559.
Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator
Del'Haye P., Herr T., Gavartin E., Gorodetsky M. L., Holzwarth R., Kippenberg T. J. (2011), Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator, in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 107(6), 063901.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University Russia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Menlo Systems GmbH Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
CLEO/Europe - IQEC 2013 Talk given at a conference Mode-locking via soliton formation in optical microresonators 12.05.2013 Munich, Germany Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
CLEO/Europe - IQEC 2013 Talk given at a conference Spectral broadening of microresonator combs for self-referencing 12.05.2013 Munich, Germany Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
CLEO/Europe - IQEC 2013 Talk given at a conference Low phase noise mid-infrared frequency combs based on microresonator 12.05.2013 Munich, Germany Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
Ultrafast Optics UFO IX Talk given at a conference Soliton mode locking in microresonator based optical frequency combs 05.03.2013 Davos, Switzerland Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
ECOC 2012 - CLEO Focus Talk given at a conference Chip scale optical frequency comb 20.09.2012 Amsterdam, Netherlands Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
5th EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference Talk given at a conference Generation of Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs from Crystalline Microresonators 26.08.2012 Stockholm, Sweden Herr Tobias; Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO US 2012 Talk given at a conference Universal Dynamics of Kerr-Frequency Comb Formation in Micro-Resonators 06.05.2012 San Jose, United States of America Herr Tobias; Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO US 2012 Talk given at a conference Generation of low phase-noise mid-infrared optical frequency combs from crystalline microresonators 06.05.2012 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
CLEO US 2012 Talk given at a conference Phase Noise and Dispersion in Integrated Silicon Nitride based Kerr-comb Generators 06.05.2012 San Jose, United States of America Herr Tobias; Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
DPG Frühjahrstagung 2012 Talk given at a conference Universal Dynamics of Kerr-Frequency Comb Formation in Micro-Resonators 12.03.2012 Stuttgart, Germany Herr Tobias; Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
SPIE Photonics West Talk given at a conference Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs based on Microresonators 21.01.2012 San Francisco, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
4th ESA Conference on Atomic Clocks in Space Talk given at a conference Chip-scale optical frequency combs 24.10.2011 Trani, Italy Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
IEEE Photonics 2011 (IPC11) Talk given at a conference Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs based on Microresonators 09.10.2011 Arlington, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
CLEO/Europe - IQEC 2011 Talk given at a conference Frequency Comb Generation in Crystalline MgF2 Whispering-Gallery Mode Resonators 22.05.2011 Munich, Germany Herr Tobias; Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
EFTF Conference Talk given at a conference Chip Scale Optical Frequency Combs 02.05.2011 San Francisco, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO US 2011 Talk given at a conference Frequency Comb Generation in Crystalline MgF2 Whispering-Gallery Mode Resonators 01.05.2011 Baltimore, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
Workshop in WGM for telecommunications at ESA Talk given at a conference Planar Frequency Comb Generators 16.04.2011 Noordwijk, Netherlands Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
DPG Frühjahrstagung 2011 Talk given at a conference Frequency Comb Generation in Crystalline Whispering-Gallery Mode Resonators 16.03.2011 Dresden, Germany Herr Tobias; Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
Seminar at Ghent University Individual talk Microresonators based frequency comb 24.02.2011 Ghent, Belgium Kippenberg Tobias Jan;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
165933 Microresonators based Frequency combs: exploring temporal solitons 01.03.2017 Project funding
146823 Microresonators based Frequency combs in the visible and infrared 01.04.2013 Project funding
128709 Monolithic optical frequency comb generators 01.11.2010 R'EQUIP

Abstract

Optical frequency combs are a revolutionary tool for Metrology and allow unprecedented accuracy for determining optical frequencies. For their discovery its inventors Haensch and Hall have received the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics. Frequency combs provide the optical clockwork for optical atomic clocks based on long lived atomic transitions, which will eventually replace Cs standard. Optical frequency combs have moreover proved powerful research tools enabling advances ranging from broadband gas sensing, Fourier transform spectroscopy to calibration of astrophysical spectrometers. Frequency combs have over the past decade been generated relying exclusively on mode locked lasers. In 2007, the applicant (TJ Kippenberg) demonstrated with his research group (while working at the MPI of Quantum Optics) a novel frequency comb generator based on the use of nonlinear parametric wave mixing in microresonators. This comb generator offers unprecedented form factor and moreover allows attaining a full octave without the need for any external broadening. In addition, due to the very small microresonators optical path length, repetition rates in the range exceeding 10 GHz have become possible with this new technology. These repetition rate are unavailable in conventional mode locked laser approaches, since the required cavity pathlength only equates to <4 mm. While early work of the PI using microresonators has made significant advances, culminating in fully phase stabilized and octave spanning (1000-2000 nm) combs from a single CW laser, new wavelength ranges have so far never been explored. This is precisely at the core of the research program described here.This research plan will extend this promising microresonator comb technology into new wavelength ranges: Notably, we will seek to enter the Intermediate and Mid-IR (>2000 nm) and visible (<700 nm) range with optical microresonators made from crystals and silica respectively. Both these frequency ranges could immensely profit from the availability of combs with high repetition rates, in particular since presently GHz mode spacing combs do not exist in the visible nor mid-Infrared portion of the spectrum. Pertaining to the broader context of the research, it is aimed at fully exploiting monolithic comb generators and allow this technology to mature and access new wavelength ranges. The benefits of this research could be far reaching. Not only that this type of comb generator is ideally suited for space applications - due to the compact form factor - , but moreover it holds promise in a variety of disciplines outside of Metrology. A particulary promising application in this context for visible combs is the calibration of astrophysical spectrometers for the search of exo-planets. Pioneering work from Geneva has used Thorium lambs as calibration tools, but with the emergence of frequency combs as sources of calibration, the need for visible combs with large mode spacing has become of major interest in astronomy in the race to search for the first-earth like planet. New calibration tools are and will be indispensible assets in this context and a frequency comb with large mode spacing in the visible has been proposed as an ideal tool. Moreover, combs in the mid and intermediate infrared are of benefit to chemist studying fundamental absorption lines in the molecular fingerprinting region, which to date is difficult to access. Quantum cascade laser sources exist, but presently lack the bandwidth phase stabilization.
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