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Gas chromatographic investigations of volatile transactinides

English title Gas chromatographic investigations of volatile transactinides
Applicant Eichler Robert
Number 126639
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Paul Scherrer Institut
Institution of higher education Paul Scherrer Institute - PSI
Main discipline Physical Chemistry
Start/End 01.10.2009 - 30.09.2012
Approved amount 385'605.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Physical Chemistry
Nuclear Physics
Inorganic Chemistry

Keywords (9)

transactinides; vacuum chromatography; adsorption; heavy ion targets; gas phase chemistry; adsorption gas phase chromatography; single atom chemistry; relativistic effects; on-line separations

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
The Insitu Volatilitzation and On-line detection technique (IVO), which includes the Cryo-On-Line Detector (COLD), allowed for the first time the successful chemical investigation of the elements 112 and 114 on the basis of only a few observed atoms. For the first time indications for the increasing relativistic effects in the electron structure have been obtained. In the first task of the current project we would like to develop an experimenta scheme based on the COLD device, which is able to measure the chemical reactivity of the elements 112 and 114 with sulfur and oxygen. The heavier transactinide elements 113-116, discovered recently in Dubna are expected to be less volatile compared to Hg and even more short-lived than 287-289114 or 283,285112. This low volatility implies a poor chemical separation of by-products of the nuclear fusion reaction, interfering with an unambiguous identification of the transactinides. Physical separators are able to provide the needed preseparation of the nuclear reaction products. Currently, the dedicated separator for chemical studies, the TransActinide Separator and Chemical Apparatus (TASCA) at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt, Germany proofed to separate very efficiently (>50%) transactinide ions (288,289114) produced in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 244Pu allowing for almost background-free chemical investigations. We propose as a second task of the project to proceed with the development of a fast vacuum-adsorption chromatographic setup capable to be coupled to physical separator devices and also to be able to work without preseparation. This combination will facilitate chemical investigations focusing on low-volatile short-lived transactinide s- and p-elements in their elemental state. This project will require efforts over the three years until first generation experiments with low-volatile transactinides in their elemental state can be proposed.Promising developments are going on in the heavy ion beam production. Therefore, in the near future an intensity increase up to a factor of five can be expected. There is no target technology available which can stand those intensities. Therefore, the third part of this project will cover the production of stable actinide compounds and the development of a target production procedure.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Pioneering experiments on the chemical properties of element 113
Dmitriev Sergey N., Aksenov Nikolay V., Albin Yuriy V., Bozhikov Gospodin A., Chelnokov Maxim L., Chepygin Viktor I., Eichler Robert, Isaev Andrei V., Katrasev Denis E., Lebedev Vyacheslav Ya, Malyshev Oleg N., Petrushkin Oleg V., Porobanuk Lidia S., Ryabinin Mikhail A., Sabel'nikov Alexey V., Sokol Evgeny A., Svirikhin Alexander V., Starodub Gennadii Ya, Usoltsev Ilya, Vostokin Grigory K., Yeremin Alexander V. (2014), Pioneering experiments on the chemical properties of element 113, in Mendeleev Communications, 24(5), 253-256.
Preparation and high intensity heavy ion irradiation tests of intermetallic Am-243/Pd targets
Usoltsev I., Eichler R., Vostokin G. K., Sabel'nikov A. V., Aksenov N. V., Albin Y. V., Bozhikov G. A., Chepigin V. I., Dmitriev S. N., Lebedev V. Ya., Malyshev O. N., Petrushkin O. V., Piguet D., Starodub G. Ya, Svirikhin A. I., Tuerler A., Yeremin A. V. (2014), Preparation and high intensity heavy ion irradiation tests of intermetallic Am-243/Pd targets, in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B, 318, 297-305.
Adsorption interaction of carrier-free thallium species with gold and quartz surfaces
Serov A., Eichler R., Dressler R., Piguet D., Tuerler A., Voegele A., Wittwer D., Gaeggeler H. W. (2013), Adsorption interaction of carrier-free thallium species with gold and quartz surfaces, in Radiochimica Acta, 101(7), 421-425.
First foot prints of chemistry on the shore of the Island of Superheavy Elements
Eichler R., Li BA, Natowitz JB (2013), First foot prints of chemistry on the shore of the Island of Superheavy Elements, in Journal of Physics Conference Series, 420, 012003.
Thermal release rate studies of nuclear reaction products from polycrystalline metal matrices
Wittwer D., Dressler R., Eichler R., Gaeggeler H. W., Piguet D., Tuerler A. (2013), Thermal release rate studies of nuclear reaction products from polycrystalline metal matrices, in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B, 297, 86-93.
Preparation of Pd-based intermetallic targets for high intensity irradiations
Usoltsev I., Eichler R., Dressler R., Piguet D., Wittwer D., Türler A., Brütsch R., Olsen E.A., Omtvedt J.P., Semchenkov A. (2012), Preparation of Pd-based intermetallic targets for high intensity irradiations, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detector, 691(0), 5-9.
Rapid Synthesis of Radioactive Transition-Metal Carbonyl Complexes at Ambient Conditions
Even Julia, Yakushev Alexander, Duellmann Christoph E., Dvorak Jan, Eichler Robert, Gothe Oliver, Hild Daniel, Jaeger Egon, Khuyagbaatar Jadambaa, Kratz Jens V., Krier Joerg, Niewisch Lorenz, Nitsche Heino, Pysmenetska Inna, Schaedel Matthias, Schausten Brigitta, Tuerler Andreas, Wiehl Norbert, Wittwer David (2012), Rapid Synthesis of Radioactive Transition-Metal Carbonyl Complexes at Ambient Conditions, in Inorganic Chemistry , 51(12), 6431-6433.
Adsorption interaction of astatine species with quartz and gold surfaces
Serov A., Aksenov N., Bozhikov G., Eichler R., Dressler R., Lebedev V., Petrushkin O., Piguet D., Shishkin S., Tereshatov E., Tuerler A., Voegele A., Wittwer D., Gaeggeler H. W. (2011), Adsorption interaction of astatine species with quartz and gold surfaces, in Radiochimica Acta, 99(9), 593-599.
Chemical experiments with element 114
Tuerler Andreas, Eichler Robert, Gaeggeler Heinz W., Yakushev Alexander, Duellmann Christoph E., Schaedel Matthias, Dmitriev Sergei N., Kratz Jens Volker, Moody Kenton James, Nitsche Heino, Trautmann Norbert (2011), Chemical experiments with element 114, in ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 241, 59-NUCL.
Gas chromatography of indium in macroscopic and carrier-free amounts using quartz and gold as stationary phases
Serov A., Eichler R., Dressler R., Piguet D., Tuerler A., Voegele A., Wittwer D., Gaeggeler H. W. (2011), Gas chromatography of indium in macroscopic and carrier-free amounts using quartz and gold as stationary phases, in Radiochimica Acta, 99(2), 95-101.
The thermal release of scandium from titanium metal - a simple way to produce pure Sc-44 for PET application
Wittwer D, Dressler R, Eichler R, Gaggeler HW, Piguet D, Serov A, Turler A, Vogele A (2011), The thermal release of scandium from titanium metal - a simple way to produce pure Sc-44 for PET application, in RADIOCHIMICA ACTA, 99(3), 193-196.
Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.
Türler Andreas (2010), Chemical experiments with superheavy elements., in Chimia, 64(5), 293-8.
Gas phase chemical studies of superheavy elements using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator - Stopping range determination
Wittwer D., Abdullin F. Sh., Aksenov N. V., Albin Yu. V., Bozhikov G. A., Dmitriev S. N., Dressler R., Eichler R., Gaeggeler H. W., Henderson R. A., Huebener S., Kenneally J. M., Lebedev V. Ya., Lobanov Yu. V., Moody K. J., Oganessian Yu. Ts., Petrushkin O. V., Polyakov A. N., Piguet D., Rasmussen P., Sagaidak R. N., Serov A., Shirokovsky I. V., Shaughnessy D. A., Shishkin S. V. (2010), Gas phase chemical studies of superheavy elements using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator - Stopping range determination, in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B, 268(1), 28-35.
Indication for a volatile element 114
Eichler R, Aksenov NV, Albin YV, Belozerov AV, Bozhikov GA, Chepigin VI, Dmitriev SN, Dressler R, Gaggeler HW, Gorshkov VA, Henderson RA, Johnsen AM, Kenneally JM, Lebedev VY, Malyshev ON, Moody KJ, Oganessian YT, Petrushkin OV, Piguet D, Popeko AG, Rasmussen P, Serov A, Shaughnessy DA, Shishkin SV, Shutov AV (2009), Indication for a volatile element 114, in RADIOCHIMICA ACTA, 98(3), 133-139.
Prediction of the Thermal Release of Transactinide Elements (112 ≤ Z ≤ 116) from Metals
Wittwer David, Prediction of the Thermal Release of Transactinide Elements (112 ≤ Z ≤ 116) from Metals, in Radiochimica Acta.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
FLNR Dubna Russia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
ITE Wasaw Poland (Europe)
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
OCL Oslo Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
GSI Darmstadt Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EuCheMS International Conference on Nuclear and Radiochemistry NRC-8 Talk given at a conference The Observation of a volatile compound formation with Bismuth and Polonium during experiments with superheavy elements. 16.09.2012 Como, Italy Wittwer David; Türler Andreas; Eichler Robert; Usol'tsev Ilya;
Tenth International Conference on Relativistic Effects In Heavy-Elements (REHE 2012) Talk given at a conference Experimental Chemical Investigation of Superheavy Elements. 12.09.2012 Corrientes, Argentina Türler Andreas;
First-year Graduate Symposium Depatement for Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Bern Talk given at a conference Production of Pd-based Intermetallic Targets for High Intensity Irradiations. 10.09.2012 Bern, Switzerland Usol'tsev Ilya;
VIII TOURS SYMPOSIUM ON NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS Talk given at a conference Experimental Chemical Investigation of Superheavy Elements 02.09.2012 Lenzkirch-Saig , Germany Türler Andreas;
INTDS 2012 Conference Talk given at a conference Preparation and performance of Pd-based intermetallic ion beam targets. 19.08.2012 Mainz, Germany Eichler Robert; Usol'tsev Ilya;
Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions 2012 Talk given at a conference First foot prints of chemistry on the shore of the Island of Superheavy Elements 27.05.2012 San Antonio, United States of America Eichler Robert;
FUSHE 2012 – ENSAR-ECOS Workshop on FUture SuperHeavy Element Strategy Talk given at a conference Vacuum chromatography with SHE 13.05.2012 Erbismühle – Weilrod, Germany Wittwer David; Türler Andreas;
4th International Conference on the Chemistry and Physics of the Transactinide Elements (TAN'11) Talk given at a conference First foot prints of chemistry on the shore of The Island of SHE. 05.09.2011 Sochi, Russia, Russia Wittwer David; Eichler Robert; Usol'tsev Ilya; Türler Andreas;
241-st ACS National Meeting & Exposition Talk given at a conference Chemical Properties of Element 114 27.03.2011 Anaheim, USA, United States of America Türler Andreas; Eichler Robert; Wittwer David;
The International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies (PACIFICHEM 2010) Talk given at a conference The chemical investigation of element 114: Up’s and down’s. 13.12.2010 Honolulu, USA, United States of America Eichler Robert; Wittwer David; Türler Andreas;
FDHES Workshop Talk given at a conference Gas-phase Chemistry of superheavy elements 09.12.2010 Berkeley, USA, United States of America Türler Andreas;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Marie Curie und ihre Entdeckungen DRS 1 Doppelpunkt German-speaking Switzerland 2011

Awards

Title Year
First price at the Graduate student symposium Bern 2012
Poster Award at NRC 8 2012

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
144511 Gas chromatographic investigations of volatile transactinides 01.10.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
117671 Gas chromatographic investigations of volatile transactinides 01.10.2007 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The chemical investigation of transactinide elements is a very exciting task in basic chemistry research. So far elements Rf (element 104) - Hs (element 108) and element 112 have been chemically identified to belong to their corresponding groups of the periodic table. This is not trivial, since due to the high nuclear charges of the heaviest atoms relativistic effects are increasingly influencing their electronic structure and thus leading to deviations from trends in chemical properties along groups of the periodic table. Recent experiments with element 114 show an unexpectedly strong relativistic stabilization of the elemental atomic state. This observation needs to be confirmed and proven by further systematic investigations. For the first part of the project we propose to prepare systematic investigations of the chemical reactivity of single atoms of elements 112 and 114 and their homologues using an existing thermochromatography setup based on the successful IVO-COLD technique developed within the preceding parts of this project. The second part of the project covers further preparations to first experimental gas phase chemical investigation of the superheavy elements 113-117 and their homologues using vacuum chromatographic techniques. Transactinide elements are produced artificially in heavy ion induced nuclear fusion reactions at low reaction rates. In near future high intense heavy ion beams will be available from upgraded heavy ion sources and accelerators. Hence, one of the most crucial key steps for both parts of the project turns out to be the development of target technologies, which can stand factor 5-10 higher beam intensities compared to the recent status. High power target technologies based on high melting metals are suggested.
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