Project

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Light responsive membrane enables novel sensor principle for non-invasive transdermal glucose measurement

English title Light responsive membrane enables novel sensor principle for non-invasive transdermal glucose measurement
Applicant Wolf Martin
Number 126146
Funding scheme NRP 62 Smart Materials
Research institution Klinik für Neonatologie UniversitätsSpital Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Material Sciences
Start/End 01.03.2010 - 28.02.2015
Approved amount 604'154.00
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All Disciplines (5)

Discipline
Material Sciences
Paediatrics
Electrical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Microelectronics. Optoelectronics

Keywords (6)

gate membrane; monitoring; glucose; preterm neonate; non-invasive; light responsive

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Blood sugar measurement through the skin

The aim is to build a non-invasive system that utilizes smart materials to measure the blood sugar concentration by analyzing the fluid, which passes through the skin. The device is initially designed for preterm infants because of the high clinical relevance and applicability; later, we will address adults.

Background
In newborn or preterm infants, critically low blood sugar levels may lead to severe consequences such as impaired development of the brain. Thus, blood sugar has to be measured frequently by drawing blood samples as no commercial non-invasive sugar-monitoring device has so far been available. Taking blood samples has several undesired side effects: it causes pain and bears the risk of infection for both patients and staff.

Aim
The aim is to build a non-invasive system that utilizes smart materials to measure the blood sugar concentration by analyzing the fluid, which passes through the skin.

Significance
The scope of the novel principle is broad. Its applications are not limited to newborn or preterm infants but can be extended to older infants and to adults. Today, the established method for monitoring the blood sugar is to draw blood samples to determine the sugar concentration. Since this is painful and bears the risk of infection, blood samples are drawn not all too often or not at all, which may, sooner or later, lead to health problems. A non-invasive monitoring device will enable to measure sugar concentration changes more frequently or even continuously and possibly more accurately. Thus, the risk of complications and the frequency of acute problems will be reduced. In addition, the new principle opens an entirely new dimension of non-invasively assessing concentrations of various other substances besides sugar on the skin and will, therefore, lead to better health care at reduced costs.

Application
A novel principle to measure blood sugar noninvasively based on a smart material will be elaborated. In preterm infants blood sugar containing liquid easily permeates the skin surface, where it can be collected and analyzed outside the body. This process strongly depends on the properties of the skin, which vary individually. The novel principle will enable to take skin properties into account and to measure blood sugar concentration non-invasively.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
From membrane to skin: Aqueous permeation control through light-responsive amphiphilic polymer co-networks
Schöller Katrin, Küpfer Sabrina, Baumann Lukas, Hoyer Patrick M., De Courten Damien, Rossi Rene Michel, Vetushka Aliaksei, Wolf. Martin E., Bruns Nico, Scherer Lukas J. (2014), From membrane to skin: Aqueous permeation control through light-responsive amphiphilic polymer co-networks, in Advanced Functional Materials, 24(33), 5194-5201.
Preparation of light-responsive membranes by a combined surface grafting and postmodification process
Schöller Katrin, Baumann Lukas, Hegemann Dirk, de Courten Damien, Wolf Martin, Rossi René, Scherer Lukas (2014), Preparation of light-responsive membranes by a combined surface grafting and postmodification process, in Journal of Visualized Experiments , 85, e5168.
Development of light-responsive porous polycarbonate membranes for controlled caffeine delivery
Baumann Lukas, Schöller Katrin, de Courten Damien, Marti Dominik, Frenz Martin, Wolf Martin, Rossi René, Scherer Lukas (2013), Development of light-responsive porous polycarbonate membranes for controlled caffeine delivery, in RSC Advances, 3(45), 23317-23326.
Light-Responsive Caffeine Transfer through Porous Polycarbonate
Baumann Lukas, de Courten Damien, Wolf Martin, Rossi Rene M., Scherer Lukas J. (2013), Light-Responsive Caffeine Transfer through Porous Polycarbonate, in ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 5(13), 5894-5897.
Tuning the resistance of polycarbonate membranes by plasma-induced graft surface modification
Baumann Lukas, Hegemann Dirk, de Courten Damien, Wolf Martin, Rossi Rene M., Meier Wolfgang P., Scherer Lukas J. (2013), Tuning the resistance of polycarbonate membranes by plasma-induced graft surface modification, in APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 268, 450-457.
Opto-fluidic chip for continuous inline monitoring of glucose with kinetic enzymatic fluorescence detection
De Courten Damien, Baumann L, Scherer L, Wolf M (2012), Opto-fluidic chip for continuous inline monitoring of glucose with kinetic enzymatic fluorescence detection, in Procedia Engineering.
ATRP-based synthesis and characterization of photo-responsive coatings for transdermal delivery systems
Pauly Anja et al., ATRP-based synthesis and characterization of photo-responsive coatings for transdermal delivery systems, in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 1.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
ETHZ First Laboratory Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Sensirion AG Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
University of Basel Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
ETHZ, Animal Imaging Laboratory Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
EPFL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Kooperationsforum Intelligente Textilien 2013 Talk given at a conference Textilbasierte optische Sensorik für medizinische Anwendungen 17.10.2013 Lindau, Germany Schöller Katrin;
NanoAPP Nanomaterials & Appllications 2013 Talk given at a conference Controlled caffeine transfer through light‐responsive membrane 22.09.2013 Portoroz, Slovenia Scherer Lukas;
Chemiefaser-Tagung Talk given at a conference Sensors in medical textiles: Development of electrically conductive and polymer optical fibers 11.09.2013 Dornbirn, Austria Schöller Katrin;
Swiss Chemical Society Fall Meeting 2013 Poster Light-triggered release from responsive amphiphilic conetworks 06.09.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Schöller Katrin;
European Polymer Forum 2013 Talk given at a conference Swelling behaviour and permeability switching in light-responsive amphiphilic polymer conetworks 16.06.2013 Pisa, Italy Schöller Katrin;
The 26th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Eurosensors 2012 Talk given at a conference Opto-fluidic chip for continuous inline monitoring of glucose with kinetic enzymatic fluorescence detection 09.09.2012 Krakow Poland, Poland de Courten Damien;
European Polymer Congress Individual talk Development of Light Responsive Membranes for Controlled Drug Release 26.09.2011 Granada, Spain, Spain Scherer Lukas;
ICOM 2011 Amsterdam Poster Development of light responsive membranes for controlled drug release 24.07.2011 Amsterdam, Netherlands, Netherlands Baumann Lukas;
PhD-Symposium at EMPA – Today’s Research, Tomorrow’s World Poster Light Responsive Membrane for Controlled Material Transport 07.10.2010 Dübendorf, Switzerland, Switzerland Baumann Lukas;
3rd EuCheMS Chemistry Congress: Chemistry – the Creative Force Poster Light Responsive Membrane for Controlled Material Transport 29.08.2010 Nürnberg, Germany, Germany Baumann Lukas;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Annual meeting of the Biomedical Photonics Network 30.11.2011 Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Gently administering drugs with a membrane containing active ingredients Medica.de International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Le pansement qui soigne National Geographic France, March 2015 International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Licht statt Spritze Chemiextra, issue 3/2015 International 2015
Media relations: radio, television Et un nouveau sparadrap high-tech remplaçait bientôt l'effrayante seringue? RTS, Journal "Le 19:30" Western Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Pflaster statt Spritzen für Frühchen und Diabetiker 20minuten, 31.10.2014 German-speaking Switzerland 2014

Abstract

In preterm and term neonates critically low blood glucose levels may lead to severe consequences such as impaired development of the brain. Thus, blood glucose has to be measured frequently by drawing blood samples, because no commercial and non-invasive glucose monitoring device is yet available. Taking blood samples has several undesired side effects: It causes pain and anaemia due to the minute blood volume of preterm infants, and bears the risk of infections for both personnel and patients. A novel principle to measure blood glucose non-invasively based on a smart material, i.e. a light responsive gate membrane is proposed. It takes advantage of the high skin permeability for body fluids in preterm infants. Molecules dissolved in the body fluids (e.g. glucose, amino acids, and metabolites) diffuse through the skin easily and can be collected and analyzed outside the body. This diffusion process depends strongly on the barrier properties of the skin, which vary interindividually and depend on gestational and postnatal age and many other factors. So far quantitative measurements were strongly affected by the skin properties and thus required invasive calibration and were consequently not used clinically. The novel principle proposed in this project will enable to take skin properties into account and will thus avoid invasive calibration. The diffusive glucose flux will be controlled by a porous light responsive gate membrane, which adapts its resistance to flow reversibly when stimulated with light. Changing the resistance of the gate membrane at sequenced points in time and simultaneous spectroscopic measurements of the glucose concentration and flux will allow us to calculate blood glucose concentration without the need for an in vivo calibration. The aim of this three year project is to generate a functional demonstrator and to validate the novel principle in vitro and in vivo.The scope of the novel principle is broad. Its applications can be extended to older infants and to adult patients. The principle of measurement applies to other substances as well, i.e. to other body molecules (e.g. lactate, amino acids, nitric oxide) and medications (e.g. morphines, chloral hydrates, phenobarbital, caffeine, dopamine, epinephrine). Some of these molecules have already been shown to pass through the mature skin as well. Additionally, the novel principle can also be employed to deliver medication through the skin at a controlled rate. The new principle opens a whole new dimension of non-invasively assessing concentration of substances and will thus lead to a higher quality of health care at less cost. In addition the new sensor technology has a tremendous market potential.
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