gate membrane; monitoring; glucose; preterm neonate; non-invasive; light responsive
Schöller Katrin, Küpfer Sabrina, Baumann Lukas, Hoyer Patrick M., De Courten Damien, Rossi Rene Michel, Vetushka Aliaksei, Wolf. Martin E., Bruns Nico, Scherer Lukas J. (2014), From membrane to skin: Aqueous permeation control through light-responsive amphiphilic polymer co-networks, in Advanced Functional Materials
, 24(33), 5194-5201.
Schöller Katrin, Baumann Lukas, Hegemann Dirk, de Courten Damien, Wolf Martin, Rossi René, Scherer Lukas (2014), Preparation of light-responsive membranes by a combined surface grafting and postmodification process, in Journal of Visualized Experiments
, 85, e5168.
Baumann Lukas, Schöller Katrin, de Courten Damien, Marti Dominik, Frenz Martin, Wolf Martin, Rossi René, Scherer Lukas (2013), Development of light-responsive porous polycarbonate membranes for controlled caffeine delivery, in RSC Advances
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, 5(13), 5894-5897.
Baumann Lukas, Hegemann Dirk, de Courten Damien, Wolf Martin, Rossi Rene M., Meier Wolfgang P., Scherer Lukas J. (2013), Tuning the resistance of polycarbonate membranes by plasma-induced graft surface modification, in APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE
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Pauly Anja et al., ATRP-based synthesis and characterization of photo-responsive coatings for transdermal delivery systems, in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
In preterm and term neonates critically low blood glucose levels may lead to severe consequences such as impaired development of the brain. Thus, blood glucose has to be measured frequently by drawing blood samples, because no commercial and non-invasive glucose monitoring device is yet available. Taking blood samples has several undesired side effects: It causes pain and anaemia due to the minute blood volume of preterm infants, and bears the risk of infections for both personnel and patients. A novel principle to measure blood glucose non-invasively based on a smart material, i.e. a light responsive gate membrane is proposed. It takes advantage of the high skin permeability for body fluids in preterm infants. Molecules dissolved in the body fluids (e.g. glucose, amino acids, and metabolites) diffuse through the skin easily and can be collected and analyzed outside the body. This diffusion process depends strongly on the barrier properties of the skin, which vary interindividually and depend on gestational and postnatal age and many other factors. So far quantitative measurements were strongly affected by the skin properties and thus required invasive calibration and were consequently not used clinically. The novel principle proposed in this project will enable to take skin properties into account and will thus avoid invasive calibration. The diffusive glucose flux will be controlled by a porous light responsive gate membrane, which adapts its resistance to flow reversibly when stimulated with light. Changing the resistance of the gate membrane at sequenced points in time and simultaneous spectroscopic measurements of the glucose concentration and flux will allow us to calculate blood glucose concentration without the need for an in vivo calibration. The aim of this three year project is to generate a functional demonstrator and to validate the novel principle in vitro and in vivo.The scope of the novel principle is broad. Its applications can be extended to older infants and to adult patients. The principle of measurement applies to other substances as well, i.e. to other body molecules (e.g. lactate, amino acids, nitric oxide) and medications (e.g. morphines, chloral hydrates, phenobarbital, caffeine, dopamine, epinephrine). Some of these molecules have already been shown to pass through the mature skin as well. Additionally, the novel principle can also be employed to deliver medication through the skin at a controlled rate. The new principle opens a whole new dimension of non-invasively assessing concentration of substances and will thus lead to a higher quality of health care at less cost. In addition the new sensor technology has a tremendous market potential.