Project

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Spectroscopic Characterization of Carbon Radicals and Ions

Applicant Maier John Paul
Number 124349
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Physikalische Chemie Departement Chemie Universität Basel
Institution of higher education University of Basel - BS
Main discipline Physical Chemistry
Start/End 01.04.2009 - 31.03.2012
Approved amount 1'161'844.00
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Keywords (6)

Carbon-clusters; Radicals; Electronic-spectra; Interstellar molecules; Ions; Interstellar-Molecules

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
The project uses a number of techniques to detect for the first time the electronic spectra of radicals and ions. The species chosen for the investigations are those of astronomical and chemical interest. In particular these focus on carbon chains, rings, their simple derivatives including hydrogen, oxygen, some metals and their ions. Initial information on the systems is often obtained by measuring the electronic spectra through absorption in 6 K neon matrices using mass-selected ion beams. In the gas-phase the transient molecules are produced in discharges and laser vaporization sources coupled with supersonic free jets. The transitions are searched for with laser based approaches including cavity ring-down, laser induced fluorescence, degenerate four-wave mixing and resonant multi-photon spectroscopy. Specific for the study of larger cations is an instrument using ion trapping technology. Mass selected ions are constrained in a 22-pole radio-frequency trap where they are cooled by collisions to around 20 K. The electronic transitions are measured by approaches using two photon, two color laser excitation. The transient species being focused on for astronomical reasons are chosen in view of the knowledge gained by us in the past. This dictates the spectroscopic and physical characteristics required of the systems to be relevant as possible carriers of the diffuse interstellar band absorptions. Apart from the wavelength restriction, the oscillator strength of the transitions has to be large. This selects the several systems for our studies, including the longer carbon chains and those containing metals. The information obtained from the observed spectra provides fundamental data on the electronic structure, bonding and geometry of the species and offers the means to identify the molecules in remote environment including interstellar space, planetary atmospheres, flames, plasmas and as intermediates in chemical reactions.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Formation of Aromatic Structures from Hydrocarbons in Electrical Discharges: Absorption and Fluorescence Study of C(11)H(9)(+) and C(11)H(9) Isomers in Neon Matrices
Nagy A., Fulara J., Maier J. P. (2011), Formation of Aromatic Structures from Hydrocarbons in Electrical Discharges: Absorption and Fluorescence Study of C(11)H(9)(+) and C(11)H(9) Isomers in Neon Matrices, in J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 19796-xxx.
On the Benzylium/Tropylium Ion Dichotomy: Electronic Absorption Spectra in Neon Matrices
Nagy A, Fulara J, Garkusha I, Maier JP (2011), On the Benzylium/Tropylium Ion Dichotomy: Electronic Absorption Spectra in Neon Matrices, in ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 50(13), 3022-3025.
Electronic Absorption Spectra of Protonated Pyrene and Coronene in Neon Matrixes
Garkusha I, Fulara J, Sarre PJ, Maier JP (2011), Electronic Absorption Spectra of Protonated Pyrene and Coronene in Neon Matrixes, in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 115(40), 10972-10978.
The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2
Le A, Steimle TC, Gupta V, Rice CA, Maier JP, Lin SH, Lin CK (2011), The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2, in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 135(10), xxx-xxx.
Two-Color Photodetachment Study of the A(3)Pi-X-3 Sigma(-) Origin Band of C5H-
Tulej M, Mazzotti FJ, Maier JP (2011), Two-Color Photodetachment Study of the A(3)Pi-X-3 Sigma(-) Origin Band of C5H-, in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 115(25), 6878-6881.
DETECTION OF NONPOLAR IONS IN (2)Pi(3/2) STATES BY RADIOASTRONOMY VIA MAGNETIC DIPOLE TRANSITIONS
Morse MD, Maier JP (2011), DETECTION OF NONPOLAR IONS IN (2)Pi(3/2) STATES BY RADIOASTRONOMY VIA MAGNETIC DIPOLE TRANSITIONS, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 732(2), xxx-xxx.
Characterization of C4H in the A(2)Pi and X-2 Sigma(+) states by double resonance four-wave mixing
Mazzotti FJ, Raghunandan R, Esmail AM, Tulej M, Maier JP (2011), Characterization of C4H in the A(2)Pi and X-2 Sigma(+) states by double resonance four-wave mixing, in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 134(16), xxx-xxx.
ASSIGNMENT OF 5069 angstrom DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND TO HC4H+: DISAGREEMENT WITH LABORATORY ABSORPTION BAND
Maier JP, Chakrabarty S, Mazzotti FJ, Rice CA, Dietsche R, Walker GAH, Bohlender DA (2011), ASSIGNMENT OF 5069 angstrom DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND TO HC4H+: DISAGREEMENT WITH LABORATORY ABSORPTION BAND, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 729(2), xxx-xxx.
ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF PROTONATED ANTHRACENES AND PHENANTHRENES, AND THEIR NEUTRALS IN NEON MATRICES
Garkusha I, Fulara J, Nagy A, Maier JP (2011), ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF PROTONATED ANTHRACENES AND PHENANTHRENES, AND THEIR NEUTRALS IN NEON MATRICES, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 728(2), xxx-xxx.
IDENTIFICATION OF H2CCC AS A DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND CARRIER
Maier JP, Walker GAH, Bohlender DA, Mazzotti FJ, Raghunandan R, Fulara J, Garkusha I, Nagy A (2011), IDENTIFICATION OF H2CCC AS A DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND CARRIER, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 726(1), xxx-xxx.
Electronic spectra of carbon chains and derivatives
Nagarajan R, Maier JP (2010), Electronic spectra of carbon chains and derivatives, in INTERNATIONAL REVIEWS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, 29(3), 521-554.
Electronic transitions of the C5H- anion
Tulej M, Pino T, Pachkov M, Maier JP (2010), Electronic transitions of the C5H- anion, in MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 108(7-9), 865-871.
Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics
Maier JP, Willitsch S (2010), Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics, in CHIMIA, 64(12), 855-858.
Visible spectrum of titanium dioxide
Zhuang XJ, Le A, Steimle TC, Nagarajan R, Gupta V, Maier JP (2010), Visible spectrum of titanium dioxide, in PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 12(45), 15018-15028.
Electronic Transitions of Protonated Benzene and Fulvene, and of C6H7 Isomers in Neon Matrices
Garkusha I, Fulara J, Nagy A, Maier JP (2010), Electronic Transitions of Protonated Benzene and Fulvene, and of C6H7 Isomers in Neon Matrices, in JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 132(42), 14979-14985.
GAS-PHASE ELECTRONIC SPECTRA OF POLYACETYLENE CATIONS: RELEVANCE OF HIGHER EXCITED STATES
Rice CA, Rudnev V, Dietsche R, Maier JP (2010), GAS-PHASE ELECTRONIC SPECTRA OF POLYACETYLENE CATIONS: RELEVANCE OF HIGHER EXCITED STATES, in ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL, 140(1), 203-205.
Higher energy electronic transitions of HC2n+1H+ (n=2-7) and HC2n+1H (n=4-7) in neon matrices
Fulara J, Nagy A, Garkusha I, Maier JP (2010), Higher energy electronic transitions of HC2n+1H+ (n=2-7) and HC2n+1H (n=4-7) in neon matrices, in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 133(2), xxx-xxx.
Electronic Spectra of C6H+ and C6H3+ in the Gas Phase
Raghunandan R, Mazzotti FJ, Maier JP (2010), Electronic Spectra of C6H+ and C6H3+ in the Gas Phase, in JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY, 21(5), 694-697.
A coincidence between a hydrocarbon plasma absorption spectrum and the lambda 5450 DIB
Linnartz H, Wehres N, Van Winckel H, Walker GAH, Bohlender DA, Tielens AGGM, Motylewski T, Maier JP (2010), A coincidence between a hydrocarbon plasma absorption spectrum and the lambda 5450 DIB, in ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, 511, xxx-xxx.
Rotationally Resolved Ground State Vibrational Levels of HC2S Studied by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing
Chauhan R, Mazzotti FJ, Raghunandan R, Tulej M, Radi PP, Maier JP (2010), Rotationally Resolved Ground State Vibrational Levels of HC2S Studied by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing, in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 114(9), 3329-3333.
D-2 Pi(u),C-2 Pi(u) <- X-2 Pi(g) Electronic Transitions of NCCN+
Rice CA, Rudnev V, Chakrabarty S, Maier JP (2010), D-2 Pi(u),C-2 Pi(u) <- X-2 Pi(g) Electronic Transitions of NCCN+, in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 114(4), 1684-1687.
Alternation of the spin-orbit coupling in the 2 ground state of HCnS (n=1-12) radicals
Mitrushchenkov A, Linguerri R, Rosmus P, Maier JP (2009), Alternation of the spin-orbit coupling in the 2 ground state of HCnS (n=1-12) radicals, in MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 107(15), 1549-1553.
Selective Detection of Radicals and Ions in a Slit-Jet Discharge by Degenerate and Two-Color Four-Wave Mixing
Raghunandan R, Mazzotti FJ, Chauhan R, Tulej M, Maier JP (2009), Selective Detection of Radicals and Ions in a Slit-Jet Discharge by Degenerate and Two-Color Four-Wave Mixing, in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 113(47), 13402-13406.
Gas Phase 1(1)Sigma(+)(u) <- 1(1)Sigma(+)(g) Electronic Spectra of Polyacetylenes HC2nH, n = 5-7
Apetrei C, Nagarajan R, Maier JP (2009), Gas Phase 1(1)Sigma(+)(u) <- 1(1)Sigma(+)(g) Electronic Spectra of Polyacetylenes HC2nH, n = 5-7, in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 113(42), 11099-11100.
Gas phase electronic spectrum of T-shaped AlC2 radical
Apetrei C, Knight AEW, Chasovskikh E, Jochnowitz EB, Ding H, Maier JP (2009), Gas phase electronic spectrum of T-shaped AlC2 radical, in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 131(6), xxx-xxx.
Characterization of the (X)over-tilde(1)A(1), and (A)over-tilde(1)B(2) electronic states of titanium dioxide, TiO2
Wang HL, Steimle TC, Apetrei C, Maier JP (2009), Characterization of the (X)over-tilde(1)A(1), and (A)over-tilde(1)B(2) electronic states of titanium dioxide, TiO2, in PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 11(15), 2649-2656.
Electronic spectra of potential carriers of diffuse interstellar bands
Rice C., Maier J. P., Electronic spectra of potential carriers of diffuse interstellar bands, Wiley, xxxxxxxxx.
Ground and Low-lying excited states of propadienylidene (H(2)CCC:) obtained by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy
Stanton J. F., Garand E., Kim J., Yacovitch T. I., Hock C., Case A. C., Miller E. M., Lu Y-Y., Vogelhuber K. M., Wren S. W., Ichino T., Maier J. P., McMahon R. J., Osborn D. L., Neumark D. M., Lineberger W. C., Ground and Low-lying excited states of propadienylidene (H(2)CCC:) obtained by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy, in J. Chem. Phys..
The electronic spectrum of Si(3): Triplet D(3h) System
Reilly N. J., Kokkin D. L., Juang X., Gupta V., Nagarajan R., Fortenberry R. C., Maier J. P., Steimle T. C., Stanton J. F., McCarthy M. C., The electronic spectrum of Si(3): Triplet D(3h) System, in J. Chem. Phys..

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Dept. Chemie, EPF Lausanne 06.10.2011 Lausanne
Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich 27.09.2011 Zürich
Chemistry and Physics of Matrix Isolated Species 11.07.2011 Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)
66th Int. Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 20.06.2011 Ohio St. University, Columbus (USA)
4th Int. Workshop on Electrostatic Strorage Devices 08.06.2011 Gatlinburg, Tennessee (USA)
24th Int. Symposium on Molecular Beams 26.05.2011 Universite de Bordeaux (France)
Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA) 09.05.2011 Salt Lake City (USA)
JILA, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA) 29.04.2011 JILA
Symposium on Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions in the Laboratory and in Extra-terrestrial Space 05.10.2010 Kos, Greece
Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Univ. of Colorado 22.08.2010 Boulder, USA
Ion Guide and Trap Workshop, Telluride Science Center 20.07.2010 Colorado, USA
10th European Conference on Atoms, Molecules and Photons 06.07.2010 Salamanca, Spain
Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture, School of Chemistry, Univ. of Nottingham 25.02.2010 Nottingham, UK
Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Stockholm 22.02.2010 Stockholm, Sweden
25th Conference on Mass Spectrometry 18.10.2009 Asilomar, CA, U.S.A.
30th Int. Symposium on Free Radicals 29.07.2009 Savonlinna, Finland
Gordon Conference: "Electronic spectroscopy and dynamics" 20.07.2009 Colby College, Waterville, Main, U.S.A.
Berlin Chemische Gesellschaft 22.06.2009 T.U. Berlin, Germany
Heraeus-Seminar: "Anions from the lab to the stars" 09.06.2009 Bad Honnef, Germany
Symposium on size selected clusters 12.03.2009 Brand, Austria


Self-organised

Title Date Place

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Weltenreise 18.11.2011 Schauspielhaus, Basel
Kiwani Club 10.08.2011 Basel
Akademische Abschlussfeier 18.02.2011 Freie Univ. Berlin, Fachbereich Physik
Senioren Universität 01.11.2010 Basel, Switzerland
Kinder-Universität 18.09.2010 Basel, Switzerland
Kinder-Universität 29.05.2010 Solothurn, Switzerland


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Träger Humboldt-Forschungspreis TELEBAR German-speaking Switzerland 21.01.2011

Awards

Title Year
SASP Erwin Schrödinger Gold Medal 2012
Humboldt Research Award 2011
ERC Advanced Investigator Grant 2010
JILA Visiting Fellowship 2010

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
115864 Spectroscopic characterization of carbon radicals, ions, and cluster ions 01.04.2007 Project funding
140316 Spectroscopic Characterization of Carbon Radicals and Ions 01.04.2012 Project funding

Abstract

The project uses a number of techniques to detect for the first time the electronic spectra of radicals and ions. The species chosen for the investigations are those of astronomical and chemical interest. In particular these focus on carbon chains, rings, their simple derivatives including hydrogen, oxygen, some metals and their ions. Initial information on the systems is often obtained by measuring the electronic spectra through absorption in 6 K neon matrices using mass-selected ion beams. In the gas-phase the transient molecules are produced in discharges and laser vaporization sources coupled with supersonic free jets. The transitions are searched for with laser based approaches including cavity ring-down, laser induced fluorescence, degenerate four-wave mixing and resonant multiphoton spectroscopies. Specific for the study of larger cations is an instrument using ion trapping technology. Mass selected ions are constrained in a 22-pole radiofrequency trap where they are cooled by collisions to around 20 K. The electronic transitions are measured by approaches resembling REMPI schemes, but in this case on cations. Each of these techniques has a dedicated instrument for this purpose and the methods are used hand in hand to achieve the goals.The transient species being focused on for astrophysical reasons are chosen in view of the knowledge gained by us in this area over the past decade. These results dictate the spectroscopic and physical characteristics required of the systems to be relevant as potential carriers of the diffuse interstellar band absorptions. Apart from the wavelength criterium that the species have to absorb in the optical region, the oscillator strength of the transitions has to be large. This selects several of the systems for our studies, in particular some of the longer carbon chains and those containing metals. The information obtained from the observation and analysis of the spectra provides basic fundamental data on the electronic structure, bonding and geometry of the species. In addition spectroscopy offers means to identify the molecules in various not easily accessible environments, including regions in interstellar space, planetary atmospheres, flames, plasmas and as intermediates in chemical reactions.
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