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Mechanisms of cardiovascular and autonomic dysregulation induced by caffeinated soft drinks in humans

English title Mechanisms of cardiovascular and autonomic dysregulation induced by caffeinated soft drinks in humans
Applicant Montani Jean-Pierre
Number 122554
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Division de Physiologie Département de Médecine Université de Fribourg
Institution of higher education University of Fribourg - FR
Main discipline Cardiovascular Research
Start/End 01.03.2009 - 30.09.2013
Approved amount 253'205.00
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Keywords (10)

hypertension; cardiovascular risk; endothelial dysfunction; autonomic nervous system; Soft drinks; caffeine; fructose; blood pressure; energy drink; autonomic regulation

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Consumption of refined sugars in the form of soft drinks is increasingly recognized as a public health concern with major implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows many chronic studies in animals suggesting that the fructose component of these added sugars is particularly harmful, contributing to insulin resistance and hypertension. The possibility therefore arises that in humans, the cardiovascular load imposed by ingestion of a single soft drink might, if repeated often enough, have cumulative adverse effects. These adverse consequences might be exacerbated by caffeine, which is often added to soft drinks, particularly in popular 'energy' drinks.We hypothesize that there is a synergistic interaction between low dose caffeine and refined sugars in elevating blood pressure via endothelial dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation, and that this synergistic interaction is even greater with higher doses of caffeine such as those found in commercial 'energy' drinks. To test these hypotheses, we are comparing in healthy young subjects the cardiovascular responses to ingestion of drinks containing fructose, glucose, and sucrose with and without added caffeine, and to assess the role of each sugar compound. In addition, we will also test whether consuming a popular energy drink potentiates the cardiovascular responses to mental effort and physical activity.Our proposed projects should provide important new information in establishing potential mechanisms behind the cardiovascular risk imposed by caffeinated soft drinks and energy drinks. Considering the high levels of consumption of these drinks in the population, and that these studies are designed to simulate 'real-life' consumption of caffeinated soft drinks, the information obtained from this project will have direct impact on public health interest.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Cerebro- and Cardio-vascular Responses to Energy Drink in Young Adults: Is there a Gender Effect?
Monnard Cathríona R, Montani Jean-Pierre, Grasser Erik K (2016), Cerebro- and Cardio-vascular Responses to Energy Drink in Young Adults: Is there a Gender Effect?, in Frontiers in physiology, 7, 346-346.
Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms.
Grasser Erik Konrad, Miles-Chan Jennifer Lynn, Charrière Nathalie, Loonam Cathríona R, Dulloo Abdul G, Montani Jean-Pierre (2016), Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms., in Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 7(5), 950-60.
Hemodynamic Responses to Energy Drink Consumption.
Grasser Erik Konrad, Miles-Chan Jennifer Lynn, Montani Jean-Pierre (2016), Hemodynamic Responses to Energy Drink Consumption., in JAMA, 315(18), 2018-2018.
Postprandial thermogenesis and respiratory quotient in response to galactose: comparison with glucose and fructose in healthy young adults.
Charrière Nathalie, Montani Jean-Pierre, Dulloo Abdul G (2016), Postprandial thermogenesis and respiratory quotient in response to galactose: comparison with glucose and fructose in healthy young adults., in Journal of nutritional science, 5, 4-4.
Sex difference in substrate oxidation during low-intensity isometric exercise in young adults.
Sarafian Delphine, Schutz Yves, Montani Jean-Pierre, Dulloo Abdul G, Miles-Chan Jennifer L (2016), Sex difference in substrate oxidation during low-intensity isometric exercise in young adults., in Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme, 41(9), 977-84.
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress.
Grasser Erik Konrad, Dulloo Abdul G, Montani Jean-Pierre (2015), Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress., in The American journal of cardiology, 115(2), 183-9.
The blood pressure-elevating effect of Red Bull energy drink is mimicked by caffeine but through different hemodynamic pathways.
Miles-Chan Jennifer L, Charrière Nathalie, Grasser Erik K, Montani Jean-Pierre, Dulloo Abdul G (2015), The blood pressure-elevating effect of Red Bull energy drink is mimicked by caffeine but through different hemodynamic pathways., in Physiological reports, 3(2), e12290.
The thermic effect of sugar-free Red Bull: do the non-caffeine bioactive ingredients in energy drinks play a role?
Miles-Chan Jennifer L, Charrière Nathalie, Grasser Erik K, Montani Jean-Pierre, Dulloo Abdul G (2015), The thermic effect of sugar-free Red Bull: do the non-caffeine bioactive ingredients in energy drinks play a role?, in Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 23(1), 16-9.
Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment.
Charrière N, Miles-Chan J L, Montani J-P, Dulloo A G (2015), Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment., in Nutrition & diabetes, 5, 190-190.
A standardized approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis during low-intensity physical activity
Sarafian Delphine, Miles-Chan Jennifer L., Yepuri Gayathri, Montani Jean Pierre, Schutz Yves, Dulloo Abdul G. (2013), A standardized approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis during low-intensity physical activity, in Frontiers in Physiology, 4 JUL(4), 155.
Heterogeneity in the Energy Cost of Posture Maintenance during Standing Relative to Sitting: Phenotyping According to Magnitude and Time-Course
Miles-Chan Jennifer L., Sarafian Delphine, Montani Jean-Pierre, Schutz Yves, Dulloo Abdul (2013), Heterogeneity in the Energy Cost of Posture Maintenance during Standing Relative to Sitting: Phenotyping According to Magnitude and Time-Course, in PLOS ONE, 8(5), e65827.
Sitting comfortably versus lying down: Is there really a difference in energy expenditure?
Miles-Chan Jennifer L., Sarafian Delphine, Montani Jean Pierre, Schutz Yves, Dulloo Abdul G. (2013), Sitting comfortably versus lying down: Is there really a difference in energy expenditure?, in Clinical Nutrition, 1-4.
Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration
Sharp M. Keith, Batzel Jerry Joseph, Montani Jean-Pierre (2013), Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration, in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 113(8), 1919-1937.
Delaying orthostatic syncope with mental challenge: A pilot study.
Goswami Nandu, Roessler Andreas, Hinghofer-Szalkay Helmut, Montani Jean-Pierre, Steptoe Andrew (2012), Delaying orthostatic syncope with mental challenge: A pilot study., in Physiology & behavior, 106(4), 569-73.
Non-contact assessment of waist circumference: will tape measurements become progressively obsolete?
Schutz Y, Sarafian D, Miles J L, Montani J-P, Dulloo A G (2012), Non-contact assessment of waist circumference: will tape measurements become progressively obsolete?, in European journal of clinical nutrition, 66(2), 269-72.
Rate of cardiovascular recovery to combined or separate orthostatic and mental challenges.
Goswami Nandu, Lackner Helmut Karl, Papousek Ilona, Jezova Daniela, Hinghofer-Szalkay Helmut, Montani Jean-Pierre (2010), Rate of cardiovascular recovery to combined or separate orthostatic and mental challenges., in International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Ps, 75(1), 54-62.
Time course of cardiovascular responses induced by mental and orthostatic challenges.
Lackner Helmut Karl, Goswami Nandu, Papousek Ilona, Roessler Andreas, Grasser Erik Konrad, Montani Jean-Pierre, Jezova Daniela, Hinghofer-Szalkay Helmut (2010), Time course of cardiovascular responses induced by mental and orthostatic challenges., in International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Ps, 75(1), 48-53.
Cardiovascular responses to sugary drinks in humans: galactose presents milder cardiac effects than glucose or fructose.
Charrière Nathalie, Loonam Cathriona, Montani Jean-Pierre, Dulloo Abdul G, Grasser Erik K, Cardiovascular responses to sugary drinks in humans: galactose presents milder cardiac effects than glucose or fructose., in European journal of nutrition.

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Nephrology Minisymposium, Inselpital Talk given at a conference Hypertension, sodium transport and Guyton’s Hypothesis 22.09.2015 Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland Montani Jean-Pierre;
37th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Poster Increased cardiac workload by a high-salt meal in healthy subjects 19.10.2014 Yokohama, Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Talk / Swiss-Japan 150th anniversary of diplomatic relations Individual talk Impact of nutrition on health 10.05.2014 Tsuyama, Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
36th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Talk given at a conference Role of whole body blood flow autoregulation in salt-loading hypertension: insights from computer simulations with Guyton's large circulatory model 25.10.2013 Osaka, Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Fribourg Obesity Research Conference (FORC-2013) Talk given at a conference Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: Who are at risks? 12.09.2013 Fribourg, Switzerland Dulloo Abdul G.; Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited seminar, Physiology, Porto, June 2013 Individual talk Impact of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system 04.06.2013 Department of physiology and cardiothoracic surgery, University of Porto, Portugal Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Okayama, Japan, April 2013 Individual talk Cardiovascular effects of fructose 26.04.2013 Okayama, Okayama Medical Center , Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Kurashiki, Japan, April 2013 Individual talk Acute cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks 24.04.2013 Kurashiki, Kawasaki Medical Center, Dept Physiology, Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Matsumoto, Japan, April 2013 Individual talk Role of Sugary Drinks in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases 11.04.2013 Matsumoto, Shinshu University, Dept Physiology, Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Kobe, Japan, April 2013 Individual talk Cardiovascular effects of energy drinks 09.04.2013 Kobe, Hyogo College of Medicine, Dept Physiology, Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, NIPS, Japan, April 2013 Individual talk Acute cerebrovascular effects of energy drink consumption 03.04.2013 Okazaki, National Institutes of Physiological Sciences (NIPS), Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Physiology, Riga, June 2012 Individual talk Role of soft drinks in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases 28.06.2012 Riga, University of Latvia, Dept Physiology, Latvia Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, NIPS, Japan, March 2012 Individual talk Autonomic nervous control during soft drink ingestion 26.03.2012 Okazaki, National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS), Japan Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Physiology, Lisbon, Jan 2012 Individual talk Role of soft drinks in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases 12.01.2012 Lisbon, Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon, Dept Physiology, Portugal Montani Jean-Pierre;
Annual meeting of Swiss Society of Nephrology, 2011 Talk given at a conference Metabolic consequences of experimental uninephrectomy 02.12.2011 Montreux, Switzerland, Switzerland Montani Jean-Pierre;
Annual meeting of the Italian Society of Physiology, 2011 Talk given at a conference Caloric restriction, weight cycling and health 25.09.2011 Sorrento, Italy, Italy Montani Jean-Pierre; Dulloo Abdul G.;
Fribourg Obesity Research Conference (FORC-2011) Talk given at a conference Body composition, Thermogenesis & Inflammation in Pathogenesis of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome 23.09.2011 Fribourg, Switzerland, Switzerland Dulloo Abdul G.; Montani Jean-Pierre;
Invited Seminar, Physiology, Berlin, July 2010 Individual talk Soft drinks and cardiovascular risks factors 08.07.2010 Berlin, La Charité, Dept of Physiology, Germany Montani Jean-Pierre;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
159512 Cardiovascular effects of acute alcohol consumption: interaction with festive meals 01.11.2015 Project funding
112186 Adverse cardiovascular effects of soft drinks in humans. Contributions of added fructose, caffeine and the interaction with a high-fat meal 01.07.2006 Project funding

Abstract

Background: Consumption of refined sugars in the form of soft drinks is increasingly recognized as a public health concern with major implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows many chronic studies in animals suggesting that the fructose component of these added sugars is particularly harmful, contributing to insulin resistance and hypertension. The possibility therefore arises that in humans, the cardiovascular load imposed by ingestion of a single soft drink might, if repeated often enough, have cumulative adverse effects. These adverse consequences might be exacerbated by caffeine, which is often added to soft drinks in doses ranging from 10-15 mg per 100 ml. Although the amounts of caffeine in regular caffeinated soft drinks are generally considered to be ‘low’, our preliminary data suggest that ingestion of 50 mg caffeine, while having little or no impact on cardiovascular responses to water drinking, interacts synergistically with a sugar drink to elevate blood pressure for at least 2 h.Hypothesis: (I)The synergistic interaction between low dose caffeine and refined sugars in elevating blood pressure resides in endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation and altered blood glucose homeostasis. (II)Consumption of an increasingly popular ‘energy’ drink (containing 80 mg caffeine per can) would also induce an elevation in blood pressure, contributed by endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation and altered blood glucose homeostasis.(III)Consumption of this popular ‘energy’ drink - which is marketed as a stimulant to be consumed at times of mental and physical activity - would potentiate the cardiovascular load imposed by mental effort and low-intensity physical activity. Objectives & Design: To test these hypotheses, we propose (a) to compare the cardiovascular responses to ingestion of drinks containing fructose, glucose, and sucrose with and without added caffeine, and to assess the role of altered endothelial function, autonomic regulation and glucose metabolism (Project 1), (b) to measure the cardiovascular responses to a popular energy drink, and underlying role of endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation and altered glucose metabolism (Project 2), and (c) to test whether consuming this popular energy drink potentiates the cardiovascular responses to the mental effort and physical activity (Project 3). We will perform non-invasive beat-to-beat recordings of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output and cerebral blood flow. Further evaluation (spectral analysis) of the recorded signals will provide additional information on the underlying autonomic modulation. Microvascular endothelial reactivity will be measured in the skin using Laser Doppler Flowmetry combined with iontophoresis. Blood samples will be withdrawn for measurement of plasma levels of glucose, insulin and caffeine. Potential significance: Our proposed projects should provide important new information in establishing potential mechanisms behind the cardiovascular risk imposed by caffeinated soft drinks and energy drinks. Considering the high levels of consumption of these drinks in the population, and that these studies are designed to simulate ‘real-life’ consumption of caffeinated soft drinks, the information obtained from this project will have direct impact on public health interest.
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