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Different levels of regulation of cell growth and cell wall formation in Arabidopsis: The plant TOR pathway and flavonols modulate cell development

English title Different levels of regulation of cell growth and cell wall formation in Arabidopsis: The plant TOR pathway and flavonols modulate cell development
Applicant Ringli Christoph
Number 122157
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Pflanzen- und Mikrobiologie Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Botany
Start/End 01.10.2008 - 31.01.2012
Approved amount 375'000.00
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Keywords (7)

LRR-extensins; Arabiodopsis; cell wall; flavonols; pectin; rol; LRX

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Lead:Cell and ultimately plant growth depend on the proper development of the cell wall that surrounds each cell. The composition of plant cell walls is relatively well understood. There is, however, little understanding on the mechanisms that regulate the spatial and temporal extent of cell wall growth. This project addresses the function of different components that appear to be involved in the regulation of this complex process.Background:Cell walls consist of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. In addition, a number of proteins are important for the mechanical properties of the cell wall or strongly influence its growth. In previous work, we have identified a class of LRR-extensin proteins that are located in the cell wall and appear to regulate wall growth. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking the LRX1 proteins are unable to properly develop cell walls.To better understand the function of LRX1, we identified mutant Arabidopsis plants that are able to overcome the defects induced by the lrx1 mutation. These plants, referred to as “suppressors of lrx1”, are possibly modified in an LRX1-related process and we are currently characterizing the function of those genes that are affected in these plants.In a parallel approach, we were able to show that flavonoids, a large group of secondary metabolites normally associated with responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses, also influence cell shape formation. Arabidopsis plants with a modified flavonoid accumulation develop deformed cells.Goal:The goal of this project is several-fold. We intend to better understand the regulation of cell wall formation. What components define the time-point and extent of cell growth and how are they executing their regulatory activity? To this end, we started characterizing the role of LRX1 in Arabidopsis. One potential regulatory mechanism that we have recently identified as being potentially important for this process is being analyzed in detail. Furthermore, we are elucidating the mode of action of flavonoids in the process of cell (wall) shape determination.Significance:Cell walls are highly complex structures. They serve a protective function for individual cells and whole plants, and recently became the centre of interest because of their source of carbohydrates for the production of fuel (biofuels). Even though the importance of cell walls is obvious, little is known about the contribution of individual components to the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Also, very limited information is available on the growth properties of this structure. Our research efforts aim at elucidating the function of a few components during cell wall formation and hence the mechanisms by which plants can sense and modify processes that take place in their extracellular matrix.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Plant TOR signaling components.
John Florian, Roffler Stefan, Wicker Thomas, Ringli Christoph (2011), Plant TOR signaling components., in Plant signaling & behavior, 6(11), 1700-5.
Flavonols accumulate asymmetrically and affect auxin transport in Arabidopsis.
Kuhn Benjamin M, Geisler Markus, Bigler Laurent, Ringli Christoph (2011), Flavonols accumulate asymmetrically and affect auxin transport in Arabidopsis., in Plant Physiology, 156(2), 585-95.
Monitoring the outside: cell wall-sensing mechanisms.
Ringli Christoph (2010), Monitoring the outside: cell wall-sensing mechanisms., in Plant Physiology, 153(4), 1445-52.
The hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein domain of the Arabidopsis LRX1 requires Tyr for function but not for insolubilization in the cell wall.
Ringli Christoph (2010), The hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein domain of the Arabidopsis LRX1 requires Tyr for function but not for insolubilization in the cell wall., in The Plant Journal, 63(4), 662-9.
The TOR pathway modulates the structure of cell walls in Arabidopsis.
Leiber Ruth-Maria, John Florian, Verhertbruggen Yves, Diet Anouck, Knox J Paul, Ringli Christoph (2010), The TOR pathway modulates the structure of cell walls in Arabidopsis., in The Plant Cell, 22(6), 1898-908.

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
103891 LRX in root hair cell wall development and suppressors of the lrx1 root hair mutant: genetic and biochemical approaches to elucidate the function of the LRX gene familiy in Arabidopsis 01.06.2004 Project funding (Div. I-III)
138472 The TOR (Target of Rapamycin) signalling pathway - a new modulator of cell wall development 01.02.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)

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