Project

Back to overview

CASTANEA: Climate Amplifiers: From Sources of Terrestrial Aerosols and Nitrogen in Ecosystems to the Atmosphere

English title CASTANEA: Climate Amplifiers: From Sources of Terrestrial Aerosols and Nitrogen in Ecosystems to the Atmosphere
Applicant Kaplan Jed Oliver
Number 119049
Funding scheme SNSF Professorships
Research institution
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.04.2008 - 31.03.2012
Approved amount 1'622'289.00
Show all

All Disciplines (8)

Discipline
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Geomorphology
Hydrology, Limnology, Glaciology
Ecology
Environmental Research
Geophysics
Pedology

Keywords (17)

climate change; air quality; water quality; global biogeochemical cycles; dynamic global vegetation modelling; nitrogen cycle; soil development and erosion; dust; nitrogen; wildfires; pedogenesis; methane; chemical composition of the atmosphere; carbon cycle; ozone; air pollution; paleoclimate

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
How do changes in the terrestrial biosphere amplify changes in the climate system? The ice core record of trace gas and aerosol concentrations contains a dramatic illustration of how rapidly the terrestrial biosphere can respond to climate change, yet we know little of how changes the abundance of methane, N2O or dust in the atmosphere could in turn effect the Earth's climate and amplify or damp ongoing climate changes. The interdisciplinary CASTANEA project studies the interaction between soils, vegetation and the atmosphere, with the goal of quantifying how emissions of nitrogen containing gases and dust from the Earth's surface effect global climate. This project addresses a major gap in our understanding of the Earth system, namely the interaction between plants, soil, and microorganisms, and their relationship with greenhouse gas concentrations and climate. The work has far reaching implications for our ability to understand abrupt climate changes in the past, and to predict the future evolution of our planet.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Name Institute

Employees

Publications

Publication
Environmental Change in the Temperate Grasslands and Steppe
Tarasov Pavel E., Williams John W., Kaplan Jed O., Hermann Österle, Tatiana V. Kuznetsova, Mayke Wagner (2012), Environmental Change in the Temperate Grasslands and Steppe, SAGE Publishers, London, ---.
A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean
Luterbacher J., R. García-Herrera, S. Akcer-On, R. Allan, M. C. Alvarez-Castro, G. Benito, J. Booth, U. Büntgen, N. Cagatay, D. Colombaroli, B. Davis, J. Esper, T. Felis, D. Fleitmann, D. Frank, D. Gallego, E. Garcia-Bustamante, R. Glaser, J. F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, T. Kiefer, M. G. Macklin, S. Manning, P. Montagna, L. Newman (2012), A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 87-185.
Impacts of changing land use and land cover on atmospheric chemistry and air quality over the 21st century
Wu Shiliang, Mickley Loretta J., Kaplan Jed O., Jacob Daniel J. (2012), Impacts of changing land use and land cover on atmospheric chemistry and air quality over the 21st century, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 1597-1609.
The effects of human land use and climate change over the past 500 years on the carbon cycle of Europe
Kaplan J. O., Krumhardt K. M., Zimmermann N. E. (2011), The effects of human land use and climate change over the past 500 years on the carbon cycle of Europe, in Global Change Biology, 902-914.
Evaluación de inventarios de emisión de metano en Colombia y Panamá a partir de simulación Lagrangiana y mediciones aeroportadas durante la misión TC4 de la NASA
Guerrero O. J., Jiménez R., Lin J. C., Diskin G. S., Sachse G. W., Kort E. A., Kaplan J. O. (2011), Evaluación de inventarios de emisión de metano en Colombia y Panamá a partir de simulación Lagrangiana y mediciones aeroportadas durante la misión TC4 de la NASA, in 9th Colombian Congress of Meteorology.
Cumulative effects of rapid land-cover and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia
Walker D. A., Forbes B. C., Leibman M. O., Epstein H. E., Bhatt U. S., Comiso J. C., Drozdov D. S., Gubarkov A. A., Jia G. J., Kaarlejarvi E., Kaplan J. O., Khomutov A. V., Kofinas G. P., Kumpula T., Kuss P., Moskalenko N. G., Meschtyb N. A., Pajunen A., Raynolds M. K., Romanovsky V. E., Stammler F., Yu Q. (2011), Cumulative effects of rapid land-cover and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, Springer, Heidelberg, 207-236.
Magnitude and seasonality of wetland methane emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada)
Pickett-Heaps C. A., Jacob D. J., Wecht K. J., Kort E. A., Wofsy S. C., Diskin G. S., Worthy D. E. J., Kaplan J. O., Bey I., Drevet J. (2011), Magnitude and seasonality of wetland methane emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 3773-3779.
A unified approach to orbital, solar, and lunar forcing based on the latitudinal temperature/insolation gradient
Davis B. A. S., Brewer S. (2011), A unified approach to orbital, solar, and lunar forcing based on the latitudinal temperature/insolation gradient, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 1861-1874.
Holocene carbon emissions as a result of anthropogenic land cover change
Kaplan J.O., Krumhardt K. M., Ellis E. C., Ruddiman W. F., Lemmen C., Goldewijk K. K. (2011), Holocene carbon emissions as a result of anthropogenic land cover change, in The Holocene, 21, 775-791.
Recent Changes in Arctic Vegetation: Satellite Observations and Simulation Model Predictions
Goetz S. J., Epstein H. E., Bhatt U. S., Jia G. J., Kaplan J. O., Lischke H., Yu Q., Bunn A., Lloyd A. H., Alcaraz-Segura D., Beck P. S. A., Comiso J. C., Raynolds M. K., Walker D. A. (2011), Recent Changes in Arctic Vegetation: Satellite Observations and Simulation Model Predictions, Springer, Heidelberg, 9-36.
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation and wetland methane interannual variability
Hodson E. L., Poulter B., Zimmermann N. E., Prigent C., Kaplan J. O. (2011), The El Niño–Southern Oscillation and wetland methane interannual variability, in Geophysical Research Letters, 38, ---.
2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility
Büntgen U., Tegel W., Nicolussi K., McCormick M., Frank D., Trouet V., Kaplan J. O., Herzig F., Heussner K. U., Wanner H., Luterbacher J., Esper J. (2011), 2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility, in Science, 331, 578-582.
Documentation of the ARVE Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (ARVE-DGVM)
Melton J. R., Kaplan J. O., Pfeiffer M., Collins P. M. (2010), Documentation of the ARVE Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (ARVE-DGVM).
Could anthropogenic soil erosion have influenced Mediterranean vegetation distribution over the Holocene?
Collins P. M., Kaplan J. O., Davis B. A. S. (2010), Could anthropogenic soil erosion have influenced Mediterranean vegetation distribution over the Holocene?, in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 9, ---.
Response of terrestrial N2O and NOx emissions to abrupt climate change
Pfeiffer M., Kaplan J. O. (2010), Response of terrestrial N2O and NOx emissions to abrupt climate change, in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 9, ---.
ARVE Technical Report #3: Methodology for worldwide population estimates: 1000 BC to 1850
Krumhardt K. M. (2010), ARVE Technical Report #3: Methodology for worldwide population estimates: 1000 BC to 1850.
Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks
Gaillard M. J., Sugita S., Mazier F., Trondman A. K., Brostrom A., Hickler T., Kaplan J. O., Kjellstrom E., Kokfelt U., Kunes P., Lemmen C., Miller P., Olofsson J., Poska A., Rundgren M., Smith B., Strandberg G., Fyfe R., Nielsen A. B., Alenius T., Balakauskas L., Barnekow L., Birks H. J. B., Bjune A., Bjorkman L. (2010), Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks, in Climate of the Past, 6, 483-499.
Modelling prehistoric land use and carbon budgets: A critical review
Boyle J. F., Gaillard M. J., Kaplan J. O., Dearing J. A. (2010), Modelling prehistoric land use and carbon budgets: A critical review, in The Holocene, doi: 10.1177/095968361038698, 1-8.
Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to late Holocene climate change
Oldfield F., R. W. Battarbee, J. F. Boyle, N. G. Cameron, B. Davis, R. P. Evershed, A. D. McGovern, V. Jones, R. Thompson, R. Walker (2010), Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to late Holocene climate change, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 1040-1054.
Field experiments using CO2 enrichment: A comparison of two main methods
Mauri A. (2010), Field experiments using CO2 enrichment: A comparison of two main methods, in iForest, 3, 109-112.
Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index
Walker D. A., Leibman M. O., Epstein H. E., Forbes B. C., Bhatt U. S., Raynolds M. K., Comiso J. C., Gubarkov A. A., Khomutov A. V., Jia G. J., Kaarlejarvi E., Kaplan J. O., Kumpula T., Kuss P., Matyshak G., Moskalenko N. G., Orekhov P., Romanovsky V. E., Ukraientseva N. G., Yu Q. (2009), Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index, in Environmental Research Letters, 4, ---.
The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe
Kaplan J. O., Krumhardt K. M., Zimmermann N. (2009), The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 3016-3034.
Orbital forcing and the role of the latitudinal temperature/insolation gradient
Davis B. A. S. (2009), Orbital forcing and the role of the latitudinal temperature/insolation gradient, in Climate Dynamics, 32, 143-165.
Leaf area index for northern and eastern North America at the Last Glacial Maximum: a data-model comparison
Williams J. W., Gonzales L. M., Kaplan J. O. (2008), Leaf area index for northern and eastern North America at the Last Glacial Maximum: a data-model comparison, in Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 122-134.
Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: An overview
Wanner H., Beer J., Butikofer J., Crowley T. J., Cubasch U., Fluckiger J., Goosse H., Grosjean M., Joos F., Kaplan J. O., Kuttel M., Muller S. A., Prentice I. C., Solomina O., Stocker T. F., Tarasov P., Wagner M., Widmann M. (2008), Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: An overview, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 1791-1828.
ARVE Technical Report #2: A spline fit to atmospheric CO
Krumhardt K. M., Kaplan J. O. (1990), ARVE Technical Report #2: A spline fit to atmospheric CO.
Climate Change Adaptation for Northwest Skeena Communities
Dirk Brinkman, James Casey, Mike Buell, Stewart Cohen, Richard Chavez, Jed O. Kaplan, David Marmorek, Ralph Matthews, Katie McPherson, Joe Melton, Georgia Piggott, Marc Porter, Lars Reese-Hansen, Don Robinson, Robin Sydneysmith, Jason Smith, Jordan Tesluk, Richard Thompson, Doug Williams, Climate Change Adaptation for Northwest Skeena Communities, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
The mid-Holocene vegetation of the Mediterranean region and southern Europe, and comparison to the present day
Collins P. M., Davis B. A. S., Kaplan J. O., The mid-Holocene vegetation of the Mediterranean region and southern Europe, and comparison to the present day, in Journal of Biogeography.

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
European Geoscience Union Annual Meeting 23.04.2012 Vienna, Austria
European FP7 ECOCHANGE final symposium 21.03.2012 Zurich, Switzerland


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media A global perspective on the anthropocene Science (magazine) International 31.10.2011
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Climate meddling dates back 8000 years Science News International 03.04.2011
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Columbus and the afforestation of the Americas Science News International 11.01.2011
Media relations: print media, online media Depuis quand l'homme faconne-t-il le climat? Le Monde International 05.02.2011
Media relations: radio, television Man's influence on climate Radio Suisse Romande Western Switzerland 02.02.2011
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) The 8000 year old climate puzzle Nature News International 02.04.2011
Talks/events/exhibitions Understanding climate change International 11.05.2010

Awards

Title Year
Outstanding student poster award 2012
Outstanding student poster award 2009

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
139193 COEVOLVE: Anthropogenic Interaction with the Earth System Over the Holocene 01.04.2012 SNSF Professorships
137342 A European Pollen Surface Sample Database 01.09.2011 International Exploratory Workshops
130254 Mediterranean Land Cover Change over the Holocene: Integrating Models and Data (MACCHIA) 01.09.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The CASTANEA project asks the question: How do changes in the terrestrial biosphere amplify changes in the climate system? Through an interdisciplinary study of the interaction between soils, vegetation and the atmosphere, and by leveraging expertise in atmospheric climate-chemistry modelling at the host institution, we will study how emissions of nitrogen-containing gases and dust from the Earth’s surface might amplify changes in global climate. This project addresses a major gap in our understanding of the Earth system, namely the interaction between plants, soil, and microorganisms, and their relationship with greenhouse gas concentrations and climate. CASTANEA has far-reaching implications for our ability to understand abrupt climate changes in the past, and hence to predict the future evolution of our planet.CASTANEA will be organized around two linked activities, 1) modelling soil dynamics and dust sources through the interaction between vegetation, rock, wetlands and topography and 2) understanding the past record of N2O and dust concentrations observed in polar ice through coupled source, transport and sink modelling. The representation of pedogenesis and other “slow” processes is an acknowledged weakness of the current generation of dynamic land surface models used both in climate modelling and for studies of the global carbon cycle. Current interpretation of dust and N2O records from ice cores is extremely speculative because of a lack of process models available for hypothesis testing. CASTANEA, through its interdisciplinary structure, outward-looking and dynamic project leadership and renowned host institution, is in a unique position to make great advances in our understanding of the Earth system and to better predict human impact on potential future climate change.
-