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Control of cell polarisation by microtubules and formins in the fission yeast

English title Control of cell polarisation by microtubules and formins in the fission yeast
Applicant Martin Sophie
Number 114936
Funding scheme SNSF Professorships
Research institution Centre Intégratif de Génomique Université de Lausanne
Institution of higher education University of Lausanne - LA
Main discipline Cellular Biology, Cytology
Start/End 01.09.2007 - 31.10.2011
Approved amount 1'489'735.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Cellular Biology, Cytology
Genetics
Molecular Biology

Keywords (10)

cell polarity; cytoskeleton; actin; microtubule plus ends; formin; cell cycle; Fission yeast; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; microtubule; cancer

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Polarity is a fundamental property of cells. It is essential both during development, for the generation of diverse cell types by asymmetric division, and for the correct physiological function of differentiated cells such as neurons. Loss of cell polarisation can lead to defects in cell fate specification and tissue organisation and may underlie diseases such as cancer. We are interested in understanding how the cytoskeleton - a dynamic “scaffolding” contained within all cells - is spatially regulated to define global cellular organisation, how proteins are targeted to the appropriate locations to perform their function, and how these processes are co-ordinated with the cell division cycle.
To address these problems, we use as a model system the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a unicellular eukaryote that shares over 70% of its genes with humans. Fission yeast is amenable to a powerful combination of genetics, biochemistry and live-cell imaging that allows us to identify the molecules and dissect the mechanisms that organise cells in space and time. Fission yeast cells are rod-shaped and maintain this shape by targeting cell growth to cell ends only. Two types of cytoskeletal structures - microtubules and actin - are necessary to ensure that growth occurs specifically at cell ends. Microtubules are organised along the long axis of the cell and transport proteins, such as tea4p, to cell ends to define these regions as sites of growth. Organisation of actin structures at cell ends is then necessary to target cell growth components specifically to this location.
This research project concentrates on three main questions. First, we aim to understand how a formin (for3p), a protein that builds long, polarised actin cables, is specifically localised to the extremities of the cell. These polarised actin cables are essential to target growth to cell tips. Second, to understand how cell polarisation is coordinated temporally with cell cycle progression, we will study how this formin is controlled in the cell division cycle. Finally, we will investigate how tea4p organises cell polarity at cell tips after being delivered there by microtubules. This research, using the fission yeast as a model system, concentrates on conserved proteins and processes that are likely to play similar roles in other organisms. Therefore, our work will further our understanding not only in yeast, but is likely to yield relevant information to the understanding of cell polarisation in all eukaryotes.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Cdc42 Explores the Cell Periphery for Mate Selection in Fission Yeast
Bendezu Felipe, Martin Sophie (2013), Cdc42 Explores the Cell Periphery for Mate Selection in Fission Yeast, in Current Biology, 23, 1.
Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast
Lo Presti Libera, Chang Fred, Martin Sophie (2012), Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast, in Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4579.
A phosphorylation cycle shapes gradients of the DYRK family kinase Pom1 at the plasma membrane.
Hachet Olivier, Berthelot-Grosjean Martine, Kokkoris Kyriakos, Vincenzetti Vincent, Moosbrugger Josselin, Martin Sophie G (2011), A phosphorylation cycle shapes gradients of the DYRK family kinase Pom1 at the plasma membrane., in Cell, 145(7), 1116-28.
Deconstructing the cell cycle.
Martin Sophie (2011), Deconstructing the cell cycle., in Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, 12(11), 1.
Shaping Fission Yeast Cells by Rerouting Actin-Based Transport on Microtubules.
Lo Presti Libera, Martin Sophie G (2011), Shaping Fission Yeast Cells by Rerouting Actin-Based Transport on Microtubules., in Current biology : CB, 21, 2064-2069.
Actin cables and the exocyst form two independent morphogenesis pathways in the fission yeast.
Bendezú Felipe O, Martin Sophie G (2010), Actin cables and the exocyst form two independent morphogenesis pathways in the fission yeast., in Molecular biology of the cell, 22(1), 44-53.
Geometric control of the cell cycle.
Martin Sophie G (2009), Geometric control of the cell cycle., in Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 8(22), 3643-7.
Microtubule-dependent cell morphogenesis in the fission yeast.
Martin Sophie G (2009), Microtubule-dependent cell morphogenesis in the fission yeast., in Trends in cell biology, 19(9), 447-54.
Pob1 participates in the Cdc42 regulation of fission yeast actin cytoskeleton.
Rincón Sergio A, Ye Yanfang, Villar-Tajadura M Antonia, Santos Beatriz, Martin Sophie G, Pérez Pilar (2009), Pob1 participates in the Cdc42 regulation of fission yeast actin cytoskeleton., in Molecular biology of the cell, 20(20), 4390-9.
Polar gradients of the DYRK-family kinase Pom1 couple cell length with the cell cycle.
Martin Sophie G, Berthelot-Grosjean Martine (2009), Polar gradients of the DYRK-family kinase Pom1 couple cell length with the cell cycle., in Nature, 459(7248), 852-6.
Shaping fission yeast with microtubules.
Chang Fred, Martin Sophie G (2009), Shaping fission yeast with microtubules., in Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, 1(1), 1.

Awards

Title Year
EMBO Gold Medal 2014
Friedrich Miescher Award 2014
Faculty prize for PhD thesis 2013
ASCB Women in Cell Biology Junior Award 2012
ERC Starting Grant 2010
EMBO Young Investigator Award 2009

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
121322 Integrated liquid handling platform for large-scale, automated yeast screens 01.08.2008 R'EQUIP
128784 Protein Analysis Facility of the University of Lausanne : renewal of a Quadrupole-Time-Of-Flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer for proteomics 01.01.2010 R'EQUIP
138177 Cell polarization in response to intra- and extracellular cues in fission yeast 01.01.2012 Project funding

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