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The Immune System Bridges the Gut Microbiota with Systemic Energy Homeostasis: Focus on TLRs, Mucosal Barrier, and SCFAs

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Review article (peer-reviewed)
Author Spiljar Martina, Merkler Doron, Trajkovski Mirko,
Project Metabolic homeostasis through physiological stimulation of beige fat development
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Review article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Frontiers in Immunology
Volume (Issue) 8
Page(s) x - x
Title of proceedings Frontiers in Immunology
DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01353

Open Access

URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29163467
Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)

Abstract

The gut microbiota is essential for the development and regulation of the immune system and the metabolism of the host. Germ-free animals have altered immunity with increased susceptibility to immunologic diseases and show metabolic alterations. Here, we focus on two of the major immune-mediated microbiota-influenced components that signal far beyond their local environment. First, the activation or suppression of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) by microbial signals can dictate the tone of the immune response, and they are implicated in regulation of the energy homeostasis. Second, we discuss the intestinal mucosal surface is an immunologic component that protects the host from pathogenic invasion, is tightly regulated with regard to its permeability and can influence the systemic energy balance. The short chain fatty acids are a group of molecules that can both modulate the intestinal barrier and escape the gut to influence systemic health. As modulators of the immune response, the microbiota-derived signals influence functions of distant organs and can change susceptibility to metabolic diseases.
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