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Environmental impact of buildings - what matters?

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Heeren Niko, Mutel Christopher L., Steubing Bernhard, Ostermeyer York, Wallbaum Holger, Hellweg Stefanie,
Project Life Cycle Management of wood in Switzerland: methods, tools and environmental decision support
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Environmental Science & Technology
Page(s) 9832 - 9841
Title of proceedings Environmental Science & Technology
DOI 10.1021/acs.est.5b01735

Open Access

Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)


The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building’s total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Non-renewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate.