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Identification and monitoring of Saharan dust: An inventory representative for south Germany since 1997

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Flentje H., Briel B., Beck C., Coen M. C., Fricke M., Cyrys J., Gu J., Pitz M., Thomas W.,
Project Beitrag an den Unterhalt und Betrieb der Hochalpinen Forschungsstationen Jungfraujoch und Gornergrat, 2015-2017
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Atmospheric Environment
Volume (Issue) 109
Page(s) 87 - 96
Title of proceedings Atmospheric Environment
DOI 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.023

Open Access

URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015001429
Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)

Abstract

An inventory of Sahara dust (SD) events at the Hohenpei beta enberg Global Atmosphere Watch station (Germany) is presented for the period 1997-2013. Based on daily in-situ measurements, high Ca2+-ion concentrations and large particle volume concentrations at diameters d(p) approximate to 0.5-7 gm are inferred as indicators for days influenced by SD. The resulting SD catalogue agrees with SD time series from Schneefernerhaus, Augsburg and Jungfraujoch stations. On average, SD occurs in 5-15 SD events (SDE) per year covering about 10-60 days/yr in the mixing layer. SDE exhibit a clear seasonality with spring and early autumn maxima, and typically last for 1-3 days. SDE are equally frequent but more significant at Alpine levels due to lower background. Wet deposition of Ca2+ at the surface is little correlated (R-2 = 0.14) with particle Ca2+ on a daily basis and yields an average annual Ca2+ immission of 0.22 +/- 0.04 g/m(2) yr, about 40% of which is due to SD. The majority of outstanding weekly Fe and Al depositions are associated with SDE. SD contributes about 0.5 +/- 0.1 mu g/m(3) to the total particle mass with a decreasing trend from 6% to 4% (-0.1 %/yr) in the 1997-2013 period. Except from one, all threshold exceedances according to European legislation (daily PM10 > 50 mu g/m(3)) at Hohenpei beta enberg are due to SD. Implications are discussed with respect to SD-related circulation patterns, SD-induced temperature anomalies in weather forecast models and the capability of aerosol models to capture SDE. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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