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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Mineralogy and Petrology
Title of proceedings Mineralogy and Petrology


Minerals from the tennantite-tetrahedrite series (fahlores) are found as single euhedral crystals and crustiform aggregates in hydrothermal veins of the Gradishte and Petrovitsa Pb-Zn deposits of the Madan ore field, southern Bulgaria. Unusually large compositional variations and fine oscillatory crystal zoning were investigated with electron microprobe analysis. The Gradishte samples correspond dominantly to tennantite, while Petrovitsa crystals have exclusively tetrahedrite composition. Fahlore compositions at Madan correspond to zincian varieties (1.6-1.95 apfu), with low Fe-content (<0.45 apfu). Minor silver is characteristic only for the Petrovitsa samples, reaching a maximum of 0.30 apfu. The (Cu+Ag) content of the Petrovitsa tennantites and the Cu content of the Gradishte tetrahedrites systematically exceed 10 apfu resulting in compensation of the excess Cu in the structure by Fe3+. Textural characteristics, mineral relationships and available fluid inclusion and stable isotope data suggest that fahlores precipitated in the late stages of mineralization at Madan, at temperature interval of 300-200°C from oxidizing fluids with mixed (magmatic-meteoric) signatures.