Lay summary
The present proposal describes a continuing effort in explaining and understanding stars, stellar explosions and the composition of their ejecta. This includes several fundamental topics: A the understanding of nuclear properties and reactions, B stellar evolution and the composition of wind ejecta (related mostly to massive stars), C simulations of the subsequent core collapse and supernova explosions, and D explosive nucleosynthesis processes, being related to supernovae or other explosive events, e.g. in binary stellar systems. The main emphasis is put here on the least understood ones, those which involve nuclei far from stability. Stellar winds and stellar explosions serve as input to galactic evolution. Thus, this proposal covers a range from subatomic physics to the evolution of galaxies.