Project

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Use of data-driven feedback for the improvement of classroom instruction: Refining the theoretical basis and provision of empirical evidence from an intervention study

Applicant Pham Giang Hong
Number 190602
Funding scheme Spark
Research institution Institut Professionsforschung und Kompetenzentwicklung Pädagogische Hochschule St. Gallen
Institution of higher education Pädagogische Hochschule St.Gallen - PHSG
Main discipline Educational science and Pedagogy
Start/End 01.02.2020 - 31.01.2021
Approved amount 96'383.00
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Keywords (8)

teaching development; design-based research; Helmke's sequence model; EMU; goal-setting theory; feedback; feedback intervention theory; improvement of classroom instruction

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Dieses Projekt untersucht, wie Lehrpersonen mit Hilfe von Selbsteinschätzung und Rückmeldungen von anderen Lehrpersonen sowie Schülerinnen und Schülern ihren Unterricht optimieren können. Dafür werden Erkenntnisse aus verschiedenen Forschungsbereichen zusammengefasst und in ein neues Modell der Unterrichtsentwicklung integriert.
Lay summary
Wenn sich Lehrpersonen bewusst sind, wie die Lehr- und Lernprozessen aus Sicht ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler gesehen werden, ist das der erste Schritt um den Lehr- und Lernerfolg zu sichern. Das ist die zentrale Aussage der bis dato grössten Meta-Analyse im Bereich Bildungsforschung (Hattie, 2009). Dafür kann der Einsatz von Schülerfeedbacks und Feedbacks von anderen Lehrpersonen zum Unterricht hilfreich sein. Allerdings führt die Nutzung von Datenfeedbacks nicht immer zum Erfolg. Es ist deshalb wichtig zu verstehen, wie Feedbacks zum Unterricht effektiv gestaltet und verwendet werden kann. Erkenntnisse aus anderen Forschungsbereichen weisen darauf hin, dass bestimmte Merkmale der Zielsetzung und des Austauschs verschiedener Sichtweisen auf den Unterricht eine bedeutende Rolle spielen. Ein Teil dieser Erkenntnisse sind jedoch noch nicht Bestandteile bestehender Theorien im Bereich Unterrichtsentwicklung. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes werden sie zu einem gängigen Modell der Unterrichtsentwicklung integriert. Zur Überprüfung der Gültigkeit dieser neuen Ansätze werden Lehrpersonen eingeladen, bei einer Interventionsstudie mitzumachen. Teilnehmende Lehrpersonen sollen zusammen mit einer hospitierenden Lehrperson sowie mit den Schülerinnen und Schülern ein Feedbacksystem anwenden, den Unterricht gemeinsam analysieren, darauf basierend Veränderungen planen und diese umsetzen. Danach werden die Lehrpersonen zu ihren Erfahrungen befragt. Die Ergebnisse aus dieser Studie können das Wissen vertiefen, wie Lehrpersonen ihren Unterricht durch Nutzung von Feedbacks effektiv optimieren können. Somit können konkrete Verbesserungsvorschläge zur Optimierung von Rückmeldungssystemen im Bildungsbereich gewonnen werden.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 13.02.2020

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Abstract

At a global scale, more and more feedback systems are available for teachers to help them improve their teaching. However, research findings seldom show consistent positive effects of using these systems on the improvement of instructional quality. A main reason is a deficit in theoretical background, which leads to a limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the functioning of feedback. This project contributes to the correction of this shortfall, it pursues three goals. The first goal is to refine the theoretical background of the improvement process of classroom instruction induced by the use of feedback by developing an inner theory (Card et al., 1983). Such a theory for the process of instructional improvement using feedback is still lacking. It should help describe the mechanisms underlying the implementation processes. For this purpose, an integration of the feedback intervention theory (Kluger & DeNisi, 1998) and the goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2002) into the existing framework model of Helmke (2004; 2014) is planned. The second goal is to gain empirical data that will enable us to understand more deeply the process of using feedback data to improve classroom instruction in school practice in Switzerland. In order to achieve this goal, 70 lower-secondary school teachers will be recruited. Their task is to implement the EMU feedback systems (Helmke et al., 2014) in classroom practice to improve instruction. The implementation process - performed by the teachers themselves - involves setting a goal, choosing appropriate items, collecting student and colleague feedback data (first measurement point), planning and implementing changes, and finally conducting a second measurement point for self-evaluation. To help teachers do this, a one-day introduction workshop to EMU will be offered. To gain empirical data on the process, structured interviews will be conducted with each participant after the second measurement point. The last goal is to examine the validity of the refined theory in comparison to Helmke’s original sequence model by designing and implementing an intervention study and evaluating its results. To this end, participants will be randomly assigned to two groups: an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Whereas the CG receives the standard introduction to EMU only, the IG receives additional information in the IG workshop in the form of tips and guidelines for setting effective goals, conducting task-focused change, and supporting self-monitoring for the instructional improvement process. In addition, the IG group will receive a short guideline comprising leading questions for effectively setting goals and defining self-monitoring related to long-term and short-term tasks. With additional information and helping tools, the IG is expected to be more effective in setting attainable goals, defining tasks and more likely to be more committed to the goals. Thus, this group should more often achieve the self-set goals and undergo a higher level of positive change - especially in the form of goal-related behaviors. Descriptive statistics and profile analyses based on interview data will be performed to provide a description of the processes of implementing a feedback system to improve classroom instruction. Quantitative data from the interview study together with feedback data from both measurement points will be used to gain indicators for the intervention-related process and outcome variables, such as the characteristics of self-set goals, self-defined tasks, commitment to the goal, and the direction and size of changes between MP1 and MP2. Bivariate and partial correlation networks and multiple regressions will be conducted to validate the inner hypotheses embedded in the new theoretical background. To deal with the small sample size, the lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operators, Tibshirani, 1996) method for bivariate and partial correlation networks (Friedman, Hastie, & Tibshirani, 2014) and for multiple regression (Friedman, Hastie, & Tibshirani, 2010) will be applied. The planned project timeline is between February 2020 and January 2021.
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