Project

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Digital New Testament studies : Mark 16 as a test case of a new research model

Applicant Clivaz Claire
Number 179755
Funding scheme PRIMA
Research institution Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
Institution of higher education Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics - SIB
Main discipline Religious studies, Theology
Start/End 01.10.2018 - 30.09.2023
Approved amount 1'564'516.00
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Keywords (8)

History; Digital Humanities; New Testament; Gospel of Mark; Variant; Textual Criticism; Virtual Research Environment; Bible

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
MARK16 propose un nouveau modèle de recherche en sciences humaines digitalisées, basé sur l’exemple test du dernier chapitre de l’Evangile selon Marc, dans le Nouveau Testament. Le but du projet est de créer en environnement virtuel de recherche (VRE) qui devienne le lieu de référence pour la critique textuelle et l’exégèse de Marc 16, en permettant de comparer les hypothèses des chercheurs.
Lay summary

MARK16 est le premier environnement virtuel de recherche (VRE) qui  soit consacré à un sujet d’étude en sciences bibliques, et inaugure un nouveau modèle de recherche pour les sciences humaines digitalisées. Le sujet choisi est une énigme phare du Nouveau Testament : certains manuscrits ne comportent pas de récit d’apparition de Jésus ressuscité à la fin de l’Evangile selon Marc. Attentif à ordonner historiquement la matière nécessaire à la recherche, ce VRE deviendra le lieu de référence pour la critique textuelle et l’exégèse de Marc 16, et permettra de représenter « l’histoire des vainqueurs et des vaincus », selon l’expression de l’historien François Hartog.

Le matériel disponible en libre accès ou sous copyright, y compris le matériel audio-visuel, sera présenté selon une échelle historique dans le VRE; un outil, « interpretation tool », sera créé pour comparer de manière multimodale les hypothèses, parmi lesquelles celle de la directrice du projet : l’Evangile selon Marc a connu une autre finale avant celles transmises par les manuscrits dès le 4ème siècle ; la complexité des variantes textuelles illustre le topos antique des émotions suscitées par les apparitions de morts vivants, et atteste historiquement des tensions existant entre courants judéo-chrétiens au premier siècle de notre ère. Le projet est accompagné par un comité scientifique international composé de Leif Isaksen, Jennifer Knust, Valérie Nicolet, Laurent Romary, Joseph Verheyden et Peter Williams.

Ce projet inaugure le label Digital New Testament studies et marque le tournant numérique de cette discipline ; il soutient par ailleurs une étude académique de la Bible, à l’heure où la recherche européenne joue un rôle crucial dans le maintien de la paix sociale entre communautés religieuses.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 20.08.2018

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
MARK16 develops a new research model in digitized biblical sciences, based on a test case found in the New Testament: the last chapter of the Gospel according to Mark. The goal of the project is to create a virtual research environment, that will be the reference website for textual criticism and exegesis of Mark 16, allowing to compare researchers’ hypotheses.
Lay summary

MARK16 is the first virtual research environment (VRE) focused on a biblical chapter and it inaugurates a new research model for the digitized Humanities. The chosen topic is a famous enigma in New Testament studies: certain manuscript evidences do not transmit an apparition of the resurrected Jesus at the end of the Gospel according to Mark. This VRE, which will present the research data in chronological order, will become the reference place for textual criticism and exegesis of Mark 16, and will allow to visualize the «story of the winners and the losers», according to the French historian François Hartog’s expression.

The material available in open access or with copyright, including the audio-visual material, will be presented in the VRE according to a historical scale. A new tool, the interpretation tool, will allow the multimodal comparison of hypotheses, including this one of the director of the project : the Gospel according to Mark had a previous ending, lost or destroyed, that predated the endings transmitted from the 4th century by the manuscript evidences; the complexity of the textual variants illustrates the ancient topos of people's emotions when confronted with live apparitions of the dead, and provides historical evidences for the tensions existing between diverse Jewish-Christian movements in the 1st century C.E. The project is supported by an international team of researchers: Leif Isaksen, Jennifer Knust, Valérie Nicolet, Laurent Romary, Joseph Verheyden and Peter Williams.

This project coins the label Digital New Testament studies and fosters the digital turn of New Testament studies; it supports an academic reading of the Bible at a time when European research plays a crucial role in maintaining the social peace between religious communities.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 20.08.2018

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Der Markusschluss: Narratologie und Traditiongeschichte, written by Andreas Seifert
Clivaz Claire (2019), Der Markusschluss: Narratologie und Traditiongeschichte, written by Andreas Seifert, in Novum Testamentum, 62(1), 107-108.
GA 304, Theophylact's Commentary and the Ending of Mark
Monier Mina (2019), GA 304, Theophylact's Commentary and the Ending of Mark, in Filología Neotestamentaria, 32, 95-106.
The Impact of Digital Research: Thinking about the MARK16 Project
Clivaz Claire (2019), The Impact of Digital Research: Thinking about the MARK16 Project, in Open Theology, 5(1), 1-12.
Returning to Mark 16,8: What's new?
Clivaz Claire (2019), Returning to Mark 16,8: What's new?, in ETHL, 4(2019), 645-659.
Looking at Scribal Practices in the Endings of Mark 16
Clivaz Claire, Looking at Scribal Practices in the Endings of Mark 16, in HENOCH.
Theologie und Digital Humanities. Themenrez. Neues Testament (New Testament)
Clivaz Claire, Theologie und Digital Humanities. Themenrez. Neues Testament (New Testament), in Verkündigung und Forschung.

Datasets

eTalk Mark16 and Digital Humanities

Author Clivaz, Claire
Publication date 30.10.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) nakala.fr/nakala/data/11280/b1638bb8
Repository Nakala
Abstract
This eTalk presents the main lines of a 5 years Swiss National Foundation PRIMA project, MARK16.Available on mark16.sib.swiss. Further information in the metadata.

eTalk Marc 16 et les humanités numériques

Author Clivaz, Claire
Publication date 20.12.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://www.nakala.fr/data/11280/ca257a35
Repository Nakala
Abstract
Cet eTalk présente les axes pincipaux d’un projet de recherche subventionné par une bourse PRIMA du Fonds National Suisse, MARK16.Disponible sur mark16.sib.swiss; voir les métadonnées pour les informations complètes.

eTalk: GA 304 and the Ending of the Gospel of Mark

Author Monier, Mina
Publication date 25.05.2019
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://www.nakala.fr/data/11280/e7fa7106
Repository Nakala
Abstract
This eTalk surveys what we know and what we can see in Mark 16 the interesting manuscript GA 304. Available on mark16.sib.swiss; further information in the metadata.

eTalk: Looking at some Mk 16 manuscripts, including Latin codex k

Author Clivaz, Claire
Publication date 20.11.2019
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://www.nakala.fr/data/11280/54ccbc30
Repository Nakala
Abstract
This eTalk shows that reading Mark 16 manuscripts can still reveal new elements, as in the case of nine items this eTalk surveys, ranging between the fifth and thirteenth centuries. Available on mark16.sib.swiss; further information in the metadata.

eTalk: Mark 16 in the Arabic Diatessaron

Author Monier, Mina
Publication date 06.01.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://www.nakala.fr/data/11280/e3ab505f
Repository Nakala
Abstract
This eTalk sheds light on the presentation of Mark 16 in the Arabic manuscripts of the Diatessaron, in comparison with other surviving translations of the Diatessaron. Available on mark16.sib.swiss; further information in the metadata.

eTalk: Parcourir quelques manuscrits de Marc 16, dont le codex latin k

Author Clivaz, Claire
Publication date 27.01.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://www.nakala.fr/data/11280/04b78df8
Repository Nakala
Abstract
Cet eTalk passe en revue neuf témoins différents de la fin de l’évangile sélon Marc, et atteste de la perdurance, à travers les siècles, de la diversité des lectures de Marc 16. Disponible sur mark16.sib.swiss; plus d'informations: voir les métadonnées.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Department of Religious Studies, Duke University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Pelagios Commons project, Exeter University Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Tyndale House, Cambridge Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies (KU Leuven) Belgium (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Institut de théologie protestante de Paris France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
DARIAH (Göttingen) Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Humanités globales, un programme de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure Talk given at a conference Définir les Humanités par la recherche. Les exemples des projets FNS HumaReC et MARK16 16.01.2020 Paris, ENS, France Clivaz Claire;
Rencontre annuelle de l'AELAC à Bex, 10-11 janvier 2020 Talk given at a conference The Arabic Diatessaron and Codex Bezae: The Case of Mark’s Long Ending 10.01.2020 Bex, Switzerland Monier Mina;
Rencontre annuelle de l'AELAC à Bex, 10-11 janvier 2020 Talk given at a conference Du nouveau sur l’énigme de Mc 16. De l’importance de pouvoir consulter les manuscrits du Nouveau Testament en ligne 10.01.2020 Bex, Switzerland Clivaz Claire;
Sharing the Experience: Workflows for the Digital Humanities [DARIAH-CH], 5-6 Dec 2019 Neuchâtel Talk given at a conference Revisiting Classic Textual Problems Using Digital Tools: The Case of Mark 16 05.12.2019 University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland Monier Mina;
Society of Biblical Literature, annual meeting Talk given at a conference Enlightening the Diversity of Scholarly Opinions on Multimodal Material : Mark 16 as Test-case 24.11.2019 San Diego, United States of America Clivaz Claire;
Society of Biblical Literature, international meeting Talk given at a conference The Enigma of Mark 16: The Role of Contemplating Greek Manuscript Evidence Online 04.07.2019 Rome, Italy Clivaz Claire;
SIB seminars Individual talk Digital Humanities +: Towards digitized Humanities 24.01.2019 Lausanne, SIB, Dorigny, Switzerland Sankar Martial; Clivaz Claire;
DARIAH-CH DESIR workshop Poster MARK16 PRIMA SNF project. Digital New Testament Studies 29.11.2018 Université de Neuchâtel, Switzerland Sankar Martial; Clivaz Claire;
Textual plurality in the Bible Talk given at a conference Mk 16,8 and the manuscripts evidence : listen to the scribal voices 05.11.2018 Paris, Centre Sèvres, France Clivaz Claire;
Annual meeting of the Swiss Society of Theology Talk given at a conference Digital Humanities: towards religions outside the book(s)? 04.10.2018 Zurich, Switzerland Clivaz Claire;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Découvrir les humanités numériques (cours master) Talk 02.10.2018 Paris, IPT, France Clivaz Claire;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Mark 16 in the Arabic Diatessaron eTalk on institutional website International 2020
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Parcourir quelques manuscrits de Marc 16, dont le codex latin k eTalk on insititutional website International 2020
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) GA 304 and the Ending of the Gospel according to Mark eTalk International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Ist Gott in der grossen Datenwolke zu finden? – Digital-Theologin Claire Clivaz Luzerner Zeitung German-speaking Switzerland 2019
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Looking at some Mark 16 manuscripts, including Latin codex k Institutional SIB website International 2019
Media relations: radio, television Rencontre avec Claire Clivaz une specialiste de la culture digitale et du Nouveau Testament La Première, RTS, CQFD Western Switzerland International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media The digital theologian Horizon magazine International German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland 2019
Media relations: print media, online media L'ère digitale rend toute son oralité à la Bible Journal Réformés Western Switzerland 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Marc 16 et les humanités numériques eTalk on SIB institutional website International 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Mark 16 as a test-case of a new research model in digital New Testament studies Institutional SIB website International 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) MARK16 and Digital Humanities eTalk on SIB instituitonal website International 2018

Abstract

In 2000, the French historian François Hartog explored the possibility of writing history from the point of view of both the losers and the winners. In principle, within a Virtual Research Environment (VRE), Digital Humanities research provides several skills worth discussing from diverse points of view. Paper writing material is more constrained to linear argumentation. However, digital historical VREs are often focused on making resources available and mapping them (Robertson 2016), rather than to allowing historical debates. Is it possible to answer Hartog’s exploration by developing a VRE on a test case?To answer, the project MARK16 will use a test case anchored in New Testament studies, textual criticism (NTTC) and exegesis, a field that belongs to history, theology and literary studies. In 1994, Barth Ehrman described NTTC as the place to visualize the balance of power between winners and losers in Early Christianity. The chosen test case is Mark 16, one of the most famous enigmas in NTTC (Kelhoffer 2000, Black 2008). Depending on the manuscripts, Mark 16 presents a shorter or longer ending for Mark Gospel, with or without the apparitions of the resurrected Jesus. Long puzzled by the case, scholars sometimes advocate for a double canonical form (Focant, 2006).The NT exegesis has in the last twenty years developed diverse readings based on a clear acceptation of the shorter ending, putting aside historical inquiries about Mark 16. Meanwhile, NTTC has experience a diversification of the hypothesis (Black 2008) based on not only the classical defenses of the longer ending (Lunn 2014, Hester 2015) but also the impressive reconsideration of ? and B evidence (Elliott 2008). This discrepancy between NT exegesis and NTTC state of the art invites to reconsider Mark 16, in particular from the point of view of the materiality of the manuscripts evidence and beyond the dichotomy imposed by the distinction between canonical/non-canonical texts. By building a Mark 16 VRE, the Principal Investigator (PI) will use all the digital potential to explore her own hypothesis : the key element to understanding what might have been erased from earlier Markan versions is the analysis of the disciples’ emotional reactions in front of Jesus’ apparitions. These can be expressed by diverse feelings, for example: fear (Mk 16 :8 ; Lk 24 :37 ; GosPe 57), grief (Mk 16 :10 ; GosPe 59), “unbelief of joy” (Lk 24 :41), or the laughing of the resurrected himself (Ap. Jas. 3.35-38). Sarah’s laughing and fear in LXX Gn 18 :15 belongs to Mk 16 cultural background, as well as trouble and sadness in LXX 45:3 (Iverson 2006). Exploring this hypothesis, the VRE will also allow users to discuss it and to produce their own hypothesis, by the creation of an “interpretation tool”. The VRE MARK16 intends so to answer Hartog’s concern about the representation of diverse points of view in the historical inquiry. It will be produced by the PI, a post-doc NT/DH, and a technical staff person. It will present the written sources and secondary literature, the audio-visual material and the history of reception document when available within the limits of OA copyright. It will collaborate to the international Pelagios data vizualisation project. Three peer-reviewed articles will be submitted, a DBS volume, and two webbooks (digital monographs) in partnership with Brill, according to the new editorial model established in the previous SNF project HumaReC. MARK16 should foster decisively the field in development of the New Testament digital studies, supervised by a high-qualified advisory board.
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