Project

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The Governance of Big Data in Trade Agreements: Design, Diffusion and Implications

Applicant Burri Mira
Number 167318
Funding scheme NRP 75 Big Data
Research institution Universität Luzern
Institution of higher education University of Lucerne - LU
Main discipline Legal sciences
Start/End 01.05.2017 - 30.04.2020
Approved amount 549'776.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Legal sciences
Political science

Keywords (6)

international economic law; digital trade; governance design; World Trade Organization; diffusion; free trade agreements

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Internationale Handelsabkommen regulieren immer öfter auch Datenströme. Da sich diese Regeln auf den grenzüberschreitenden Einsatz von Big Data beziehen, sollte ihre Tragweite allen Entscheidungsträgern be-wusst sein. Dieses Projekt analysiert mithilfe relevanter Instrumente die Regulierungslandschaft von Big Data.
Lay summary

Die grenzübergreifende Regulierung von Big Data schafft ein Dilemma, indem sie einerseits die Souveränität der betroffenen Staaten infrage stellt und andererseits eine nicht zu unterschätzende Barriere für den freien Handel darstellt und das Wachstum der digitalen Wirtschaft verhindern kann. Um dieses Dilemma zu lösen, müssen schwierige politische Entscheide gefällt werden. Dabei sollen Entscheidungsträger über die notwendigen Informationen und eingehende Kenntnis der Gesamtlage verfügen können.

Dieses Projekt will aufzeigen, in welcher Weise das internationale Handelsrecht auf Big Data anzuwenden ist. Es stellt die Entscheide, die bezüglich Big Data in den Handelsabkommen getroffen werden müssen, in einen umfassenden Kontext und beantwortet Fragen wie: Sollten herkömmliche Daten und Big Data unterschiedlich behandelt werden? Sollte es besondere Datenschutzregeln geben?

Der Nutzen des Projekts schätzen wir hoch ein. Die von uns generierten Daten werden auch für andere Forschungsprojekte und politische Aktivitäten förderlich sein. Die im Rahmen des Projekts geleistete interdisziplinäre Forschung zur Regulierung von Big Data in Handelsabkommen wird einen wichtigen Beitrag zur diesbezüglichen Literatur leisten und die Kompetenz der Schweiz in dieser globalen Thematik stärken.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 26.07.2017

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La réglementation des flux de données s’insère de plus en plus dans les accords commerciaux internationaux. Ces règles ayant un impact sur les applications transfrontalières du Big Data, les responsables politiques doivent en comprendre les implications. Ce projet entend explorer le paysage réglementaire inhérent aux mégadonnées en utilisant des outils analytiques pertinents.
Lay summary

La réglementation transfrontalière des mégadonnées pose un dilemme. D’un côté, elle remet en question la souveraineté des États. De l’autre, elle peut constituer une barrière significative au libre échange et entraver la croissance de l’économie numérique. La réponse à ce dilemme implique des décisions politiques difficiles. Les responsables politiques doivent posséder les informations nécessaires et une vue d’ensemble pour équilibrer les compromis. Les règles commerciales forment une part importante de cette vue d’ensemble.

Le projet entend montrer comment le droit commercial international s’applique aux mégadonnées. Il fournira aussi un contexte détaillé pour les décisions que les responsables politiques devront prendre à leur sujet dans les accords commerciaux. Données traditionnelles et mégadonnées nécessitent-elles par exemple un traitement différencié? La sphère privée a-t-elle besoin de règles spécifiques ?

Le bénéfice estimé de ce projet est significatif. L’ensemble de données ainsi généré aura une valeur intrinsèque et sera utile à d’autres efforts de recherche et de réglementation. Cette recherche interdisciplinaire sur la réglementation du Big Data dans les accords commerciaux sera une contribution importante à la littérature existante et renforcera les compétences de la Suisse face à ces enjeux globaux.


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 26.07.2017

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
International trade agreements increasingly involve regulation of data flows. Because these rules affect cross-border applications of Big Data, policy-makers need to understand their implications. This project will explore the regulatory landscape for Big Data using relevant analytical tools.
Lay summary

Regulating Big Data across borders poses a dilemma. On the one hand, this type of regulation challenges the sovereignty of states. On the other hand, it may constitute a significant barrier to free trade and impede the growth of the digital economy. Solving this dilemma involves difficult political choices. Decision-makers must have the necessary information and a profound understanding of the big picture to balance the trade-offs. Trade rules form an important part of this picture.

The project will demonstrate the ways in which international trade law applies to Big Data. It will also provide a detailed context for the sorts of decisions that policy-makers will need to take concerning Big Data in trade agreements. For example, should traditional data and Big Data be treated differently? And should there be specific rules governing privacy protection?

The estimated benefit from the project is significant. The data set we generate will be valuable in its own right and useful for other research and policy efforts. The project’s interdisciplinary research on regulating Big Data in trade agreements will be an important contribution to the existing literature and will strengthen Swiss competence in these global issues.


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 26.07.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Project partner

Publications

Publication
Understanding the Implications of Big Data and Big Data Analytics for Competition Law: An Attempt for a Primer
BurriMira (2019), Understanding the Implications of Big Data and Big Data Analytics for Competition Law: An Attempt for a Primer, in Tor Avishalom, Mathis Klaus (ed.), Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 241-263.
Data flow-related provisions in preferential trade agreements
Elsig ManfredKlotz Sebastian (2018), Data flow-related provisions in preferential trade agreements, in WTI Working Paper, 2018(3), 1-18.
Current and Emerging Trends in Disruptive Technologies: Implications for the Present and Future of EU's Trade Policy
Burri Mira (2017), Current and Emerging Trends in Disruptive Technologies: Implications for the Present and Future of EU's Trade Policy, European Parliament, Brussels.
New Legal Design for Digital Commerce in Free Trade Agreements
Burri Mira (2017), New Legal Design for Digital Commerce in Free Trade Agreements, in Digiworld Economic Journal, 107(03), 1-21.
The Governance of Data and Data Flows in Trade Agreements: The Pitfalls of Legal Adaptation
Burri Mira (2017), The Governance of Data and Data Flows in Trade Agreements: The Pitfalls of Legal Adaptation, in UC Davies Law Review, 51, 65-132.
The Regulation of Data Flows in Trade Agreements
Burri Mira (2017), The Regulation of Data Flows in Trade Agreements, in Georgetown Journal of International Law, 48(01), 408-448.
The Regulatory Framework for Digital Trade in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
Burri Mira (2017), The Regulatory Framework for Digital Trade in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, in Roffe Pedro, Seuba Xavier (ed.), CEIPI-ICTS, Geneva/Strasbourg, (04), 65-88.
Understanding and Shaping Trade Rules for the Digital Era
Burri Mira, Understanding and Shaping Trade Rules for the Digital Era, in Francois J, Hahn Michael, Elsig Manfred, Spilker G (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
University of Ottawa Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Laval Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Tilburg Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Amsterdam Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Network of Interdisciplinary Internet and Society Research Centers United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
GEM-STONE workshop and International Studies Association Annual Convention Talk given at a conference Legal Design for Reconciling Data Flows and Data Protection’ 25.03.2019 Toronto, Canada Burri Mira;
Big Data and Global Trade Law Talk given at a conference The Diffusion of Data Flow Regulation in Trade Agreements 16.03.2019 Lucerne, Switzerland Elsig Manfred; Klotz Sebastian;
International Workshop: Coherence and Divergence in Agreements on Trade in Services Talk given at a conference PTAs Frameworks for Telecommunications and Media Services: Path Dependences Still Remain 14.03.2019 Erlangen, Germany Burri Mira;
International Investment Law Workshop Talk given at a conference Governance of the Digital Economy under International Trade and Investment Law 08.03.2019 Frankfurt, Germany Polanco Lazo Rodrigo; Burri Mira;
Big Data and Global Trade Law Talk given at a conference Data Rules in Latin America: Regulatory Convergence vs. Regulatory Divergence in the Pacific Alliance Countries 16.11.2018 Lucerne, Switzerland Polanco Lazo Rodrigo;
Big Data and Global Trade Law Talk given at a conference Data Flows and Global Trade Law 16.11.2018 Lucerne, Switzerland Burri Mira;
Trade in Knowledge Conference Talk given at a conference Understanding and Shaping Trade Rules in the Age of Big Data 06.11.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Burri Mira;
Amsterdam Privacy Conference Talk given at a conference The Governance of Data Flows in Trade Agreements: High Time for New Solutions? 05.10.2018 Amsterdam, Netherlands Burri Mira;
ICON-S Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Governance of Data and Data Flows in Trade Agreements 25.06.2018 Hong Kong, Hongkong Burri Mira;
Digital Transformation: State of the Field’ Workshop Talk given at a conference Digital Transformation and Global Trade Law 15.06.2018 New York, United States of America Burri Mira;
Law and Economics symposium Talk given at a conference Understanding the Implications of Big Data and Big Data Analytics for Competition Law 13.04.2018 Lucerne, Switzerland Burri Mira;
International Studies Association Annual Convention Talk given at a conference The Global Rule Framework for Digital Trade: Spreading US Economic and Ideological Power 06.03.2018 San Francisco, United States of America Burri Mira;
World Trade Forum Talk given at a conference Understanding and Shaping Trade Rules for the Digital Era 06.10.2017 Grindelwald, Switzerland Burri Mira;
Symposium Institute for Information Law Talk given at a conference The Governance of Big Data in Trade Agreements 09.09.2017 Amsterdam, Netherlands Burri Mira;
EPIP Conference Talk given at a conference The Rise of Extraterritoriality in Cyberspace: Exploring the Extraterritorial Effects of the EU General Data Protection Regulation 04.09.2017 Bordeaux, France Burri Mira;
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Talk given at a conference Data Flows and Global Trade Regulation 12.06.2017 Geneva, Switzerland Burri Mira;
11th WIPO Advanced Intellectual Property Research Forum: Intellectual Property Reforms - International and Comparative Dimensions Talk given at a conference The Regulatory Framework for Digital Trade in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement – IP and Beyond 22.05.2017 Geneva, Switzerland Burri Mira;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Big Data and Trade Governance 16.11.2018 Lucerne, Switzerland

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
annual conference of the Swiss Political Science Association (SPSA) Talk 14.02.2019 Zurich, Switzerland Klotz Sebastian; Elsig Manfred;
Discoverability of Local, Regional and National Content Talk 06.02.2019 Ottawa, Canada Burri Mira;
EFTA Parliamentary Session Talk 22.11.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Burri Mira;
ICTSD Delegations meeting Talk 22.10.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Burri Mira;
WTO Public Forum 2018 Talk 02.10.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Polanco Lazo Rodrigo;
UNESCO Expert Meeting Talk 21.04.2018 Seoul, Korean Republic (South Korea) Burri Mira;
Lucerne Law and IT Summit (LITS) Talk 01.01.2018 Lucerne, Switzerland Burri Mira;
e15 Expert meeting on trade and innovation Talk 02.06.2017 Geneva, Switzerland Burri Mira;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Big Data and Global Trade Law 16.11.2018 Lucerne, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Conference Big Data and Global Trade Law International German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Media relations: print media, online media "Big Data": Forschung im Auftrag des Bundesrats Universität Luzern: Fokus Forschung German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Media relations: print media, online media "Big Data": Kurzbeschriebe der Projekte Universität Luzern: Fokus Forschung German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Media relations: print media, online media Brückenschlag zwischen "Big Data" und Handelsrecht Universität Luzern: Fokus Forschung German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Media relations: print media, online media Luzerner Uni beteiligt sich an der «Big-Data»-Forschung Luzerner Zeitung German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) The Governance of Big Data in Trade Agreements: Design, Diffusion and Implications German-speaking Switzerland International 2017

Abstract

The regulation of Big Data cannot be neatly contained in one policy domain but is affected by multiple, often non-hierarchically organized, regimes of both soft and hard law nature, in both national and international contexts. One area of law and policy, which has so far been only marginally explored is the governance of Big Data in trade agreements. The project aims at filling this gap. It will provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing rules in the law of the World Trade Organization and of the web of bilateral and regional free trade agreements that affect on the one hand the use of Big Data, as well as the regulatory space available to states to set and modify regulatory frameworks for Big Data. The project will identify the emerging design patterns and their diffusion globally, highlighting the differences in regulatory approaches - for instance, between the United States and the European Union, and how they matter for data flows. It will analyse the actual implementation of the norms domestically and can so identify the real impact of these agreements. Understanding the implications of the emergent body of rules on Big Data in trade agreements is critical, especially as the state struggles to strike a balance between the competing goals of innovation and free trade versus protection of key public interests, such as privacy. Ultimately, the project will seek to deliver actionable outcomes and formulate specific forward-looking policy recommendations on appropriate design for Big Data matters in trade agreements - in particular for Switzerland, which has so far not developed a discrete strategy for digital issues in foreign trade affairs.
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