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Integration of Intermittent Widespread Energy Sources in Distribution Networks: Scalable and Reliable Real Time Control of Power Flows

English title Integration of Intermittent Widespread Energy Sources in Distribution Networks: Scalable and Reliable Real Time Control of Power Flows
Applicant Le Boudec Jean-Yves
Number 153997
Funding scheme NRP 70 Energy Turnaround
Research institution Laboratoire pour les communications informatiques et leurs applications EPFL - IC - LCA2
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Electrical Engineering
Start/End 01.12.2014 - 30.11.2018
Approved amount 921'436.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Electrical Engineering
Information Technology

Keywords (5)

Power and Voltage Control; Electrical Distribution Networks; Distributed Control; Explicit Distributed Optimization; Software Agents

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La très forte augmentation prévisible de la génération décentralisée dans les réseaux électriques va poser des problèmes de qualité de service dans les réseaux de distribution ainsi que de stabilité globale, à cause de l’intermittence et du manque d’inertie. Ce projet propose une solution nouvelle à ce problème ; il permettra de démontrer qu’il est possible d’augmenter fortement l’importance des énergies renouvelables. Ce projet fait partie d’un ensemble de 2 projets, dont le deuxième vise à intégrer à la méthode développée ici un bâtiment intelligent et des ressources de stockage.
Lay summary

Notre objectif est de développer une méthode de gestion de réseau électrique qui puisse utiliser de manière simple et efficace des moyens de stockage déployés en très petite quantité. Ces moyens de stockage peuvent être directs (batteries, super-condensateurs, air comprimé) ou indirects (gestion active de la consommation électrique pour le chauffage, pour la réfrigération ou pour la charge de batteries de véhicules électriques). De telles ressources de stockage direct ou indirect sont à même de résoudre les problèmes de gestion de réseau posés par les générateurs décentralisés. Cependant il faut pouvoir coordonner leur action avec l’état du réseau, ce qui est très difficile avec les méthodes classiques basées sur la fréquence car elles ne permettent pas de connaître l’état interne de ces ressources.

Nous proposons une méthode innovante, qui permet la gestion explicite de la puissance consommée ou produite par les ressources d’un réseau électrique. La méthode se base se base sur un protocole d’échange d’information en temps réel (tous les 100 msec) entre ressources et contrôleurs, spécialement conçu pour permettre de supporter avec un seul logiciel de contrôleur des réseaux de tout type et de toute taille.

Contexte scientifique et social du projet de recherche
Notre projet produira une méthode de gestion des réseaux électriques dont une application à échelle réelle sera démontrée sur le réseau du campus de l’EPFL. Le logiciel et le matériel développés par le projet démontreront la faisabilité d’une telle approche. Cela permettra de lancer une phase de développement industriel. Le succès de ce projet montrera qu’il est possible d’augmenter de manière importante la dépendance aux générateurs décentralisés. Cela fournira aux autorités politiques et de la régulation, ainsi qu’à la population dans son ensemble, un élément important pour la prise de décision stratégique concernant la fourniture d’électricité.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 20.10.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Dispatching Stochastic Heterogeneous Resources Accounting for Grid and Battery Losses
Stai Eleni, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Sossan Fabrizio, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2018), Dispatching Stochastic Heterogeneous Resources Accounting for Grid and Battery Losses, in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 9(6), 6522-6539.
Experimental Validation of an Explicit Power-Flow Primary Control in Microgrids
Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Bernstein Andrey, Bouman Niek J., Scolari Enrica, Kettner Andreas M., Cathiard Benoit, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2018), Experimental Validation of an Explicit Power-Flow Primary Control in Microgrids, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 14(11), 4779-4791.
Load Flow in Multiphase Distribution Networks: Existence, Uniqueness, Non-Singularity and Linear Models
Bernstein Andrey, Wang Cong, Dall'Anese Emiliano, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Zhao Changhong (2018), Load Flow in Multiphase Distribution Networks: Existence, Uniqueness, Non-Singularity and Linear Models, in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 33(6), 5832-5843.
Experimental Assessment of the Prediction Performance of Dynamic Equivalent Circuit Models of Grid-connected Battery Energy Storage Systems
NamorEmil, SossanFabrizio, ScolariEnrica, CherkaouiRachid, PaoloneMario (2018), Experimental Assessment of the Prediction Performance of Dynamic Equivalent Circuit Models of Grid-connected Battery Energy Storage Systems, in 2018 IEEE PES ISGT Europe, SarajevoInfoscience EPFL, Lausanne.
On the Properties of the Compound Nodal Admittance Matrix of Polyphase Power Systems
KettnerAndreas Martin, PaoloneMario (2018), On the Properties of the Compound Nodal Admittance Matrix of Polyphase Power Systems, in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, -(-), 1-9.
A Comprehensive Assessment of the Short-Term Uncertainty of Grid-Connected PV Systems
Scolari Enrica, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Sossan Fabrizio, Paolone Mario (2018), A Comprehensive Assessment of the Short-Term Uncertainty of Grid-Connected PV Systems, in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 9(3), 1458-1467.
Undetectable Timing-Attack on Linear State-Estimation by Using Rank-1 Approximation
Barreto Sergio, Pignati Marco, Dan Gyorgy, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2018), Undetectable Timing-Attack on Linear State-Estimation by Using Rank-1 Approximation, in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 9(4), 3530-3542.
Multiphase Optimal and Non-Singular Power Flow by Successive Linear Approximations
Bernstein Andrey, Wang Cong, Le Boudec Jean-Yves (2018), Multiphase Optimal and Non-Singular Power Flow by Successive Linear Approximations, in 2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), Dublin, IrelandNREL, USA.
Robust Real-Time Control of Power Grids in the Presence of Communication Network Non-Idealities
Saab Wajeb, Rudnik Roman, Boudec Jean-Yves Le, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Paolone Mario (2018), Robust Real-Time Control of Power Grids in the Presence of Communication Network Non-Idealities, in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS), Boise, ID, USAIEEE, Boise, ID, USA.
Slack Selection for Unintentional Islanding: Practical Validation in a Benchmark Microgrid
Reyes-Chamorro L., Saab W., Rudnik R., Kettner A. M., Paolone M., Le Boudec J.Y. (2018), Slack Selection for Unintentional Islanding: Practical Validation in a Benchmark Microgrid, in 2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), Dublin, IrelandIEEExplore, New York.
Technologies for Integration of Large-Scale Distributed Generation and Volatile Loads in Distribution Grids
AcharaJadgish P., Le BoudecJean-Yves, PaoloneMario (2018), Technologies for Integration of Large-Scale Distributed Generation and Volatile Loads in Distribution Grids, in India Smart Grid Week (ISGW), New Dehli, IndiaEPFL, Lausanne.
Experimental validation of the suitability of virtualization-based replication for fault tolerance in real-time control of electric grids
Kohroudi Seyed Alireza Sanaee, Mostafa Jalal, Mohiuddin Maaz, Saab Wajeb, Boudec Jean-Yves Le (2018), Experimental validation of the suitability of virtualization-based replication for fault tolerance in real-time control of electric grids, in the 12th ACM/IEEE International Symposium, Oulu, FinlandACM DL, New York.
On the Properties of the Power Systems Nodal Admittance Matrix
Kettner Andreas Martin, Paolone Mario (2018), On the Properties of the Power Systems Nodal Admittance Matrix, in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 33(1), 1130-1131.
Photovoltaic-Model-Based Solar Irradiance Estimators: Performance Comparison and Application to Maximum Power Forecasting
Scolari Enrica, Sossan Fabrizio, Paolone Mario (2018), Photovoltaic-Model-Based Solar Irradiance Estimators: Performance Comparison and Application to Maximum Power Forecasting, in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 9(1), 35-44.
T-RECSA Virtual Commissioning Tool for Software-Based Control of Electric Grids: Design, Validation, and Operation
Achara Jagdish Prasad, Mohiuddin Maaz, Saab Wajeb, Rudnik Roman, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo (2018), T-RECSA Virtual Commissioning Tool for Software-Based Control of Electric Grids: Design, Validation, and Operation, in the Ninth International Conference, Karlsruhe, GermanyACM DL, New York.
Sequential Discrete Kalman Filter for Real-Time State Estimation in Power Distribution Systems: Theory and Implementation
Kettner Andreas Martin, Paolone Mario (2017), Sequential Discrete Kalman Filter for Real-Time State Estimation in Power Distribution Systems: Theory and Implementation, in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 66(9), 2358-2370.
Existence and Uniqueness of Load-Flow Solutions in Three-Phase Distribution Networks
Wang Cong, Bernstein Andrey, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2017), Existence and Uniqueness of Load-Flow Solutions in Three-Phase Distribution Networks, in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 32(4), 3319-3320.
A model-based filtering strategy to reconstruct the maximum power generation of curtailed photovoltaic installations: Application to forecasting
Scolari E., Sossan F., Paolone M. (2017), A model-based filtering strategy to reconstruct the maximum power generation of curtailed photovoltaic installations: Application to forecasting, in 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Manchester, United KingdomIEEE PES PowerTech, Manchester.
Handling large power steps in real-time microgrid control via explicit power setpoints
Rudnik Roman, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Bernstein Andrey, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Paolone Mario (2017), Handling large power steps in real-time microgrid control via explicit power setpoints, in 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Manchester, United KingdomIEEE, New York.
Real-time power-reference tracking method for PV converters
Zogogianni Charoula, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Paolone Mario, Porobic Vlado, Adzic Evgenije, Vekic Marko (2017), Real-time power-reference tracking method for PV converters, in 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Manchester, United KingdomIEEE, Manchester.
Irradiance prediction intervals for PV stochastic generation in microgrid applications
Scolari Enrica, Sossan Fabrizio, Paolone Mario (2016), Irradiance prediction intervals for PV stochastic generation in microgrid applications, in Solar Energy, 139, 116-129.
A Multiport Medium Voltage Isolated DC-DC Converter
TranYan-Kim (2016), A Multiport Medium Voltage Isolated DC-DC Converter, in IECON 2016 - 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, FlorenceIEEExplore, USA.
Achieving the Dispatchability of Distribution Feeders Through Prosumers Data Driven Forecasting and Model Predictive Control of Electrochemical Storage
Sossan Fabrizio, Namor Emil, Cherkaoui Rachid, Paolone Mario (2016), Achieving the Dispatchability of Distribution Feeders Through Prosumers Data Driven Forecasting and Model Predictive Control of Electrochemical Storage, in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 7(4), 1762-1777.
Axo: Masking delay faults in real-time control systems
Mohiuddin Maaz, Saab Wajeb, Bliudze Simon, Le Boudec Jean-Yves (2016), Axo: Masking delay faults in real-time control systems, in IECON 2016 - 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Florence, ItalyIEEE, USA.
Ultra-short-term prediction intervals of photovoltaic AC active power
Scolari E., Torregrossa D., Le Boudec J.-Y., Paolone M. (2016), Ultra-short-term prediction intervals of photovoltaic AC active power, in 2016 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS), BeijingIEEE, Beijing, China.
Voltage stability analysis using a complete model of grid-connected voltage-source converters
Zou Zhixiang, Buticchi Giampaolo, Liserre Marco, Kettner Andreas Martin, Paolone Mario (2016), Voltage stability analysis using a complete model of grid-connected voltage-source converters, in 2016 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Milwaukee, WI, USAIEEE, New York.
Aggregation of power capabilities of heterogeneous resources for real-time control of power grids
Bernstein Andrey, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Saab Wajeb (2016), Aggregation of power capabilities of heterogeneous resources for real-time control of power grids, in 2016 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), Genoa, ItalyIEEE, Genoa.
A multiport isolated DC-DC converter
Tran Yan-Kim, Dujic Drazen (2016), A multiport isolated DC-DC converter, in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Long Beach, CA156-162, IEEEXplore, USA156-162.
Explicit Conditions on Existence and Uniqueness of Load-Flow Solutions in Distribution Networks
Wang Cong, Bernstein Andrey, Le Boudec Jean-Yves (2016), Explicit Conditions on Existence and Uniqueness of Load-Flow Solutions in Distribution Networks, in IEEE Tran. Smart Grid, 9(2), 953-962.
Multiport resonant DC-DC converter
Tran Yan-Kim, Dujic Drazen, Barrade Philippe (2015), Multiport resonant DC-DC converter, in Industrial Electronics Society, Yokohama IECON 2015, 003839-003844, IEEExplore, USA IECON 2015, 003839-003844.
A composable method for real-time control of active distribution networks with explicit power setpoints. Part II: Implementation and validation
Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Bernstein Andrey, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2015), A composable method for real-time control of active distribution networks with explicit power setpoints. Part II: Implementation and validation, in Electric Power Systems Research, 125, 265-280.
A composable method for real-time control of active distribution networks with explicit power set points. Part I: Framework
Bernstein Andrey, Reyes Chamorro Lorenzo Enrique, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2015), A composable method for real-time control of active distribution networks with explicit power set points. Part I: Framework, in Electric Power Systems Research, 125(August), 254-264.
A composable method for real-time control of active distribution networks with explicit power set points. Part II: Implementation and validation
Reyes Chamorro Lorenzo Enrique, Bernstein Andrey, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2015), A composable method for real-time control of active distribution networks with explicit power set points. Part II: Implementation and validation, in Electric Power Systems Research, 125(August), 265-280.
A SuperCapacitor Agent for Providing Real-Time Power Services to the Grid
Reyes Chamorro Lorenzo Enrique, Paolone Mario, Bernstein Andrey, Le Boudec Jean-Yves (2015), A SuperCapacitor Agent for Providing Real-Time Power Services to the Grid, in IEEE PES Conference on Innovative SMART GRID Technologies, IEEE, IEEE PES Conference on Innovative SMART GRID Technologies (ISGT-LA 2015).
Control of a Battery Energy Storage System Accounting for the Charge Redistribution Effect to Dispatch the Operation of a Medium Voltage Feeder
Sossan Fabrizio, Torregrossa Dimitri, Namor Emil, Cherkaoui Rachid, Paolone Mario (2015), Control of a Battery Energy Storage System Accounting for the Charge Redistribution Effect to Dispatch the Operation of a Medium Voltage Feeder, in IEEE PES PowerTech, EindhovenIEEE, Eindhoven.
iPRP: Parallel Redundancy Protocol for IP Networks
Popovic Miroslav, Maaz Mashood Mohiuddin, Tomozei Dan-Cristian, Le Boudec Jean-Yves (2015), iPRP: Parallel Redundancy Protocol for IP Networks, in 11th IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (IEEE Xplore), IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems, Palma de Mallorca.
Pilotage automatique des réseaux de distribution en temps réel
Le BoudecJean-Yves, PaoloneMario (2015), Pilotage automatique des réseaux de distribution en temps réel, in Bulletin SEV/VSE, 2015(10), 37-40.
Pilotage automatique des réseaux de distribution en temps réel
Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2015), Pilotage automatique des réseaux de distribution en temps réel, in Bulletin SEV/VSE, 2015(10), 37-40.
Real-Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints: an API for Resource Agents
BoumanNiek Johannes, BernsteinAndrey, Le BoudecJean-Yves (2015), Real-Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints: an API for Resource Agents, EPFL, Lausanne.
Real-Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints: Unintentional Islanding
Bernstein Andrey, Reyes Chamorro Lorenzo Enrique, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario (2015), Real-Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints: Unintentional Islanding, in PowerTech, 2015 IEEE Eindhoven, IEEE, PES PowerTech 2015.
Experimental Assessment of the Prediction Performance of Dynamic Equivalent Circuit Models of Grid-connected Battery Energy Storage Systems
NamorEmil, SossanFabrizio, ScolariEnrica, CherkaouiRachid, PaoloneMario, Experimental Assessment of the Prediction Performance of Dynamic Equivalent Circuit Models of Grid-connected Battery Energy Storage Systems, in 2018 IEEE PES ISGT Europe, SarajevoEPFL, Lausanne.
Open-loop power sharing of three-port DC-DC resonant converters
TranYan-Kim, FreijedoFrancisco D., DujicDrazen, Open-loop power sharing of three-port DC-DC resonant converters, in 2019 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Annaheim, CAIEEExplore, USA.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
China Light and Power Hongkong (Asia)
- Research Infrastructure
KTH Sweden (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
NEST Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
SCCER FURIES Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
SwissHydrogen Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
OFEN REEL Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
Caltech United States of America (North America)
- Research Infrastructure
Imperix Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
DTU Denmark (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
CAU, Kiel Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
NREL United States of America (North America)
- Research Infrastructure
ABB Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
MOEVInc United States of America (North America)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Green Motion SA Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Nano-Tera projects S3 grids Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
Hyundai Heavy Industry Korean Republic (South Korea) (Asia)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Columbia Univ: Zussman-group Seminar Individual talk Commelec Framework / Resource Agents with Bounded Error 08.03.2016 New York, United States of America Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
Princeton Smart Grid Seminar Individual talk Commelec Framework / Resource Agents with Bounded Error 07.03.2016 Princeton, United States of America Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
Smart Grid Seminar Caltech Individual talk The Commelec Framework & The Load-Flow Problem in Distribution Networks 03.03.2016 Pasadena, United States of America Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
ENS Cachan seminar Individual talk Energy of the Future: Control an Electrical Grid by Software 01.11.2015 Paris, France Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Talk given at a conference A SuperCapacitor Agent for Providing Real-Time Power Services to the Grid 05.10.2015 Montevideo, Uruguay Le Boudec Jean-Yves; Paolone Mario;
Demand Response workshop EPFL Individual talk The use of demand response in distribution grids ancillary services 10.09.2015 Lausanne, Switzerland Le Boudec Jean-Yves; Paolone Mario;
Invited seminar at IBM Zurich Research Lab Individual talk A Composable Method for Real-Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints 01.09.2015 Rueschlikon, Switzerland Paolone Mario;
2015 IEEE PES PowerTech Talk given at a conference Real-Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints: Unintentional Islanding 29.06.2015 Eindhoven, Netherlands Paolone Mario; Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
1st International Symposium on Smart Grid Methods, Tools and Technologies Talk given at a conference A Composable Framework for Real-Time Control of Active Distribution Networks with Explicit Power Setpoints 01.05.2015 Shandong, China Paolone Mario;
Dagstuhl Seminar Individual talk Real-Time Control of electrical grids with Explicit Power Setpoints 22.02.2015 Wadern, Germany Le Boudec Jean-Yves; Paolone Mario;
Francois Baccelli 60 Workshop, ENS Paris Individual talk Stochastic analysis of real and virtual storage in the smart grid 12.01.2015 Paris, France Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
Workshop "As Scalable as Possible" INRIA-EPFL Individual talk Real-Time Control of electrical grids with Explicit Power Setpoints 09.01.2015 Lausanne, Switzerland Le Boudec Jean-Yves;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Swiss-US Energy Innovation Days, Panel "The Energy Cloud" Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 22.08.2016 San Francisco, United States of America Paolone Mario;
NRECA: Presentation of Commelec Talk 11.03.2016 Arlington VA, United States of America Le Boudec Jean-Yves;
SCCR-FURIES Annual Conference Poster 25.11.2015 Lausanne, Switzerland Le Boudec Jean-Yves; Paolone Mario;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Seminars at TIKO and Virtual Global Systems German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Video/Film Commelec Wandida Video International 2016
Media relations: print media, online media An entire section of EPFL ready to integrate renewables EPFL Mediacom International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media An innovative response to the challenge of storing renewable energy EPFL Mediacom International 2015
Other activities Demo Commelec experimental grid: EPFL alumni, Open Day, Energy Film festival, Young entrepreneurs Western Switzerland 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Pilotage automatique des réseaux de distribution en temps réel Bulletin SEV/VSE Western Switzerland 2015
Talks/events/exhibitions Visit to Microgrid by Young Entrepreneur Association / Commelec Software Demo Western Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland 2015

Patents

Title Date Number Inventor Owner
A CONTROLLER AND AN AGREEMENT PROTOCOL FOR A REAL-TIME CONTROL SYSTEM 07.04.2017 5184087
Composable method for explicit power flow control in electrical grids 05.03.2015 PCT/IB2013/056892
Real- Time Control of Microgrids with Explicit Power Setpoints: Unintentional Islanding 01.01.2015 14/846,782

Use-inspired outputs

Software

Name Year
T-RECS 2018


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
173661 Formal stability assessment of hybrid distribution grids based on the correct modeling of the effect of synchronization of the power electronics interfaces 01.06.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

A massive penetration of distributed energy sources (solar photovoltaic in summer, cogeneration in winter, small scale wind farms in all seasons) is expected to be one element of solution to the electricity gap problem (Stromlücke). However, this poses several problems such as quality of service of the distribution network and the requirement to provide voltage and frequency support to the Swiss and European grids. The classic solutions to these problems imply to (1) upgrade the electrical distribution networks and/or (2) deploy additional generators for compensation, mostly fuel based and/or (3) curtail distributed generation. All of these solutions are expensive or environmentally non-desirable. An alternative is to use local electrical and thermal storage (such as batteries, supercaps, heating and cooling systems, water reservoirs, hydrogen, flywheels or compressed air tanks), but this is difficult to deploy using the classical control means based on frequency. We propose a radically different approach, based on a new control philosophy that would enable power systems to directly communicate with each other in order to define explicit real-time setpoints for active/reactive power absorptions or injections. In this project, we propose to lay out the foundations of such a new control approach. A key requirement is scalability and robustness. We will define a universal protocol for the explicit control of power flows and voltage, combined with a recursive abstraction and optimization framework. This will allow the method to be distributed and composable, i.e. subsystems can be aggregated into abstract models that hide most of their internal complexity, and thus to apply to interconnected systems of any size and complexity. We will prove the correctness of the control algorithms by using BIP, a formal framework for developing systems that are correct by construction. We will demonstrate this control technology and deploy prototypes of real time software agents on the medium and low voltage grids of the EPFL campus, using the communication and monitoring infrastructure offered by the nano-tera project.
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