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PV2050: Novel materials and interfaces for advanced photovoltaic devices

English title PV2050: Novel materials and interfaces for advanced photovoltaic devices
Applicant Nüesch Frank
Number 153976
Funding scheme NRP 70 Energy Turnaround
Research institution Departement Moderne Materialien, ihre Oberfläche und Grenzflächen EMPA
Institution of higher education Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology - EMPA
Main discipline Material Sciences
Start/End 01.12.2014 - 30.11.2018
Approved amount 404'373.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Material Sciences
Condensed Matter Physics

Keywords (9)

CIGS solar cell; a-Si/c-Si solar cell; perovskite solar cell; high charge carrier mobility; near infrared sensitization; passivation layer; transparent conducting oxide; electrode interface layer; recombination junction

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Zwischenflächen in Solarzellen sind essentiell für die Trennung von Ladungsträgern, die Unterdrückung deren Rekombination und ermöglichen eine effiziente Gewinnung der Ladungsträger an den Elektroden. In kristallinen Siliziumsolarzellen soll die Effizienz weiterhin erhöht werden, indem verschiedene Oxide als Passivierungsschicht appliziert werden. Für chalcogenide Solarzellen besteht die Optimierung der Effizienz darin, dass die elektronensammelnde, leicht absorbierende CdS Schicht teilweise oder vollständig durch eine transparente Oxidschicht ersetzt wird. In neuartigen Perovskit Solarzellen wird die transparente, lochleitende Schicht durch eine im nahen Infrarot absorbierende Schicht ersetzt, sodass die Photosensibilität der Solarzelle im nahen Infrarot-Bereich erweitert werden kann. Bei allen untersuchten Zwischenflächenschichten wird eine der Art der Beschichtungsmethode besondere Beachtung geschenkt, um Defektzustände an der Zwischenfläche zu vermeiden.
Lay summary
Photovoltaische Bauteile benötigen Halbleitermaterialien, welche effizient Licht absorbieren und elektrische Ladungen transportieren können. Damit eine Solarzelle funktionieren kann, benötigt diese Zwischenflächen, um Ladungen voneinander trennen zu können, deren Rekombination zu verhindern sowie die Ladungsträgergewinnung an den Elektroden zu gewährleisten. Ziel des Projektes ist es, diese Zwischenflächen für kristalline Silizium (c-Si) Solarzellen, Chalcogenid-Solarzellen (CIGS, CGS) sowie Perovskitsolarzellen zu optimieren. Im Falle von c-Si Solarzellen stehen Passivierungsschichten und Beschichtungsmethoden von verschiedenen Oxiden im Vordergrund. Dabei soll auch das Verständnis der Bandstruktur an den Zwischenfläche zu diesen Oxiden geschaffen werden. In CIGS Solarzellen kann die Verringerung der Schichtdicke der leicht absorbierenden, Elektronen-leitdenden CdS Schicht eine Effizienzsteigerung bewirken. Dabei sollen zusätzliche Oxidschichten die CdS Schicht teilweise oder sogar vollständig ersetzen. Auch hier steht neben der Material-Stöchiometrie ebenfalls die Beschichtungsmethode im Vordergrund. In der relativ jungen Perovskit Solarzellentechnologie ist eine Umwandlung von Licht in Strom durch die grosse Bandlücke des Absorbers gegeben. Um den Photostrom zu erhöhen soll in diesem Projekt der transparente Lochleiter ganz oder teilweise ersetzt werden durch einen im nahen Infrarot absorbierenden Halbleiter ersetzt werden. Durch Sensibilisierung des Pervoskit Absorbers mit infraroten Photonen soll der photosensitive Bereich dieser Solarzelle vergrössert werden und somit die Effizienz der Solarzelle erhöht werden.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 14.10.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
ALD-Zn x Ti y O as Window Layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Solar Cells
Löckinger Johannes, Nishiwaki Shiro, Andres Christian, Erni Rolf, Rossell Marta D., Romanyuk Yaroslav E., Buecheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2018), ALD-Zn x Ti y O as Window Layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Solar Cells, in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10(50), 43603-43609.
Fully textured monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with 25.2% power conversion efficiency
Sahli Florent, Werner Jérémie, Kamino Brett A., Bräuninger Matthias, Monnard Raphaël, Paviet-Salomon Bertrand, Barraud Loris, Ding Laura, Diaz Leon Juan J., Sacchetto Davide, Cattaneo Gianluca, Despeisse Matthieu, Boccard Mathieu, Nicolay Sylvain, Jeangros Quentin, Niesen Bjoern, Ballif Christophe (2018), Fully textured monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with 25.2% power conversion efficiency, in Nature Materials, 17(9), 820-826.
Impact of interlayer application on band bending for improved electron extraction for efficient flexible perovskite mini-modules
Pisoni Stefano, Fu Fan, Widmer Roland, Carron Romain, Moser Thierry, Groening Oliver, Tiwari Ayodhya N., Buecheler Stephan (2018), Impact of interlayer application on band bending for improved electron extraction for efficient flexible perovskite mini-modules, in Nano Energy, 49, 300-307.
One-Dimensional Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Incorporating Near-Infrared-Absorbing Cyanine Cations
Véron Anna C., Linden Anthony, Leclaire Nicolas A., Roedern Elsa, Hu Shunbo, Ren Wei, Rentsch Daniel, Nüesch Frank A. (2018), One-Dimensional Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Incorporating Near-Infrared-Absorbing Cyanine Cations, in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 9(9), 2438-2442.
TiO2 as intermediate buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
Löckinger Johannes, Nishiwaki Shiro, Weiss Thomas P., Bissig Benjamin, Romanyuk Yaroslav E., Buecheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2018), TiO2 as intermediate buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 174, 397-404.
Over 20% PCE perovskite solar cells with superior stability achieved by novel and low-cost hole-transporting materials
Zhang Fei, Wang Zhiqiang, Zhu Hongwei, Pellet Norman, Luo Jingshan, Yi Chenyi, Liu Xicheng, Liu Hongli, Wang Shirong, Li Xianggao, Xiao Yin, Zakeeruddin Shaik Mohammed, Bi Dongqin, Grätzel Michael (2017), Over 20% PCE perovskite solar cells with superior stability achieved by novel and low-cost hole-transporting materials, in Nano Energy, 41, 469-475.
On a better estimate of the charge collection function in CdTe solar cells: Al 2 O 3 enhanced electron beam induced current measurements
Bissig Benjamin, Lingg Martina, Guerra-Nunez Carlos, Carron Romain, La Mattina Fabio, Utke Ivo, Buecheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2017), On a better estimate of the charge collection function in CdTe solar cells: Al 2 O 3 enhanced electron beam induced current measurements, in Thin Solid Films, 633, 218-221.
High-efficiency inverted semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells in substrate configuration
Fu Fan, Feurer Thomas, Weiss Thomas Paul, Pisoni Stefano, Avancini Enrico, Andres Christian, Buecheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2017), High-efficiency inverted semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells in substrate configuration, in Nature Energy, 2(1), 16190-16190.
Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode
Makha Mohammed, Testa Paolo, Anantharaman Surendra Babu, Heier Jakob, Jenatsch Sandra, Leclaire Nicolas, Tisserant Jean-Nicolas, Véron Anna C., Wang Lei, Nüesch Frank, Hany Roland (2017), Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode, in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 18(1), 68-75.
Dopant-free star-shaped hole-transport materials for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
Zhang Fei, Zhao Xiaoming, Yi Chenyi, Bi Dongqin, Bi Xiangdong, Wei Peng, Liu Xicheng, Wang Shirong, Li Xianggao, Zakeeruddin Shaik Mohammed, Grätzel Michael (2017), Dopant-free star-shaped hole-transport materials for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells, in Dyes and Pigments, 136, 273-277.
Flexible NIR-transparent perovskite solar cells for all-thin-film tandem photovoltaic devices
Pisoni Stefano, Fu Fan, Feurer Thomas, Makha Mohammed, Bissig Benjamin, Nishiwaki Shiro, Tiwari Ayodhya N., Buecheler Stephan (2017), Flexible NIR-transparent perovskite solar cells for all-thin-film tandem photovoltaic devices, in J. Mater. Chem. A, 5(26), 13639-13647.
A transparent, solvent-free laminated top electrode for perovskite solar cells
Makha Mohammed, Fernandes Silvia Letícia, Jenatsch Sandra, Offermans Ton, Schleuniger Jürg, Tisserant Jean-Nicolas, Véron Anna C., Hany Roland (2016), A transparent, solvent-free laminated top electrode for perovskite solar cells, in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 17(1), 260-266.
A Novel Dopant-Free Triphenylamine Based Molecular “Butterfly” Hole-Transport Material for Highly Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells
Zhang Fei, Yi Chenyi, Wei Peng, Bi Xiangdong, Luo Jingshan, Jacopin Gwénolé, Wang Shirong, Li Xianggao, Xiao Yin, Zakeeruddin Shaik Mohammed, Grätzel Michael (2016), A Novel Dopant-Free Triphenylamine Based Molecular “Butterfly” Hole-Transport Material for Highly Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells, in Advanced Energy Materials, 6(14), 1600401-1600401.
High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a S , N -Heteropentacene-based D-A Hole-Transport Material
Bi Dongqin, Mishra Amaresh, Gao Peng, Franckevičius Marius, Steck Christopher, Zakeeruddin Shaik Mohammed, Nazeeruddin Mohammad Khaja, Bäuerle Peter, Grätzel Michael, Hagfeldt Anders (2016), High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a S , N -Heteropentacene-based D-A Hole-Transport Material, in ChemSusChem, 9(5), 433-438.
Effcient silicon solar cells with dopant-free asymmetric heterocontacts
Bullock James, Hettick Mark, Geissbühler Jonas, Ong Alison J., Sutter-Fella Carolin M., Chen Teresa, Schaler Ethan W., De Wolf Stefaan, Ballif Christophe, Cuevas Andrés, Javey Ali (2016), Effcient silicon solar cells with dopant-free asymmetric heterocontacts, in Nature Energy, 25(15031), 1-21.
Evolution of carbon impurities in solution-grown and sputtered Al:ZnO thin films exposed to UV light and damp heat degradation
Fuchs Peter, Steinhauser Jérôme, Avancini Enrico, Romanyuk Yaroslav E., Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2016), Evolution of carbon impurities in solution-grown and sputtered Al:ZnO thin films exposed to UV light and damp heat degradation, in RSC Advances, 6, 53768-53776.
Evolution of carbon impurities in solution-grown and sputtered Al:ZnO thin films exposed to UV light and damp heat degradation
Fuchs Peter, Steinhauser Jérôme, Avancini Enrico, Romanyuk Yaroslav E., Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2016), Evolution of carbon impurities in solution-grown and sputtered Al:ZnO thin films exposed to UV light and damp heat degradation, in RSC Advances, 6(59), 53768-53776.
High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a S , N -Heteropentacene-based D-A Hole-Transport material
Bi Dongqin, Mishra Amaresh, Gao Peng, Franckevicius Marius, Steck Christopher, Zakeeruddin Shaik M., Nazeeruddin Mohammad K., Bäuerle Peter, Grätzel Michael, Hagfeldt Anders (2016), High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a S , N -Heteropentacene-based D-A Hole-Transport material, in ChemSusChem, 9, 433-438.
Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications
Fu Fan, Feurer Thomas, Jäger Timo, Avancini Enrico, Bissig Benjamin, Yoon Songhak, Buecheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2015), Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications, in Nature Communications, 6(1), 8932-8932.
22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector
Geissbühler Jonas, Werner Jérémie, de Nicolas Silvia Martin, Barrau Loris, Hessler-Wyser Aïcha, Despeisse Matthieu, Nicolay Sylvain, Tomasi Andrea, Niesen Bjoern, De Wolf Stefaan, Ballif Christophe (2015), 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, in Applied Physics Letters, 107, 081601-081603.
Controlled growth of PbI2 nanoplates for rapid preparation of CH3NH3PbI3 in planar perovskite solar cells
Fu Fan, Kranz Lukas, Yoon Songhak, Lockinger Johannes L., Jaeger Timo, Perrenoud Julian, Feurer Thomas, Gretener Christina, Bücheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2015), Controlled growth of PbI2 nanoplates for rapid preparation of CH3NH3PbI3 in planar perovskite solar cells, in Physica Status Solidi, 212(12), 2708-2717.
High-efficiency polycrystalline thin film tandem solar cells
Kranz Lukas, Abate Antonio, Fu Fan, Avancini Enrico, Löckinger Johannes, Reinhard Patrick, Zakeeruddin Shaik M., Grätzel Michael, Buecheler Stephan, Tiwari Ayodhya N. (2015), High-efficiency polycrystalline thin film tandem solar cells, in Physical Chemistry Letters, 6(14), 2676-2681.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. P. Wehrmann/Folex AG Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. D. Bremaud/Flisom AG Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. P. Hofer-MeyerBurger Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Prof. Dr. C. Hinderling / ZHAW Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Peter Chabrecek/Sefar AG Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Glass to Energy - G2E SA Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Industrialization of perovskite thin film photovoltaic technology Individual talk PV2050: A joint Swiss effort towards high PV efficiency 04.10.2018 Bern, Switzerland Nüesch Frank; Ballif Christophe; Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
Swiss PV Tagung Poster Peroprint- Printing Perovskite Solar Cells 19.04.2018 Bern, Switzerland Nüesch Frank;
43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Talk given at a conference Mesoscopic photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells 05.06.2016 Portland, United States of America Grätzel Michael;
43rd IEEE PVSC Talk given at a conference High-efficiency perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cells 05.06.2016 Portland, United States of America Ballif Christophe;
43rd IEEE PVSC Talk given at a conference Development of dopant-free carrier-selective contacts for silicon solar cells 05.06.2016 Portland, United States of America Ballif Christophe;
E-MRS Spring meeting Talk given at a conference Carrier collection lengths approaching Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber thickness: Al2O3 passivation layers for improved EBIC measurements 02.05.2016 Lille, United States of America Avancini Enrico; Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
MRS Srping Meeting 2016 Talk given at a conference Advances in silicon heterojunction solar cell research 28.03.2016 Phoenix, United States of America Ballif Christophe; Weng Ching-Hsun;
MRS Fall Meeting Talk given at a conference Low-temperature Processed Efficient Semi-transparent Planar Perovskite Solar Cells for Bifacial and Tandem Applications 29.11.2015 Boston, United States of America Avancini Enrico; Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
25th PVSEC Talk given at a conference Advances in silicon heterojunction solar cell research 15.11.2015 Busan, Korean Republic (South Korea) Ballif Christophe;
Workshop on new materials and innovative solar cell architectures Talk given at a conference Towards dopant-free silicon solar cells and tandems 13.10.2015 Palaiseau, France Ballif Christophe;
Perovskite Solar Cells and Optoelectronics Talk given at a conference Synergistic Effect of PCBM and PbI2 on Suppressing J-V Hysteresis in Planar Perovskite Solar Cells, oral, Perovskite Solar Cells and Optoelectronics 27.09.2015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tiwari Ayodhya Nath; Avancini Enrico;
XIV Brazil MRS Meeting Talk given at a conference Synthesis of Highly Ordered 2D-Organic-Inorganic Perovskites 27.09.2015 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Véron Anna; Nüesch Frank;
EU PVSEC 2015 Talk given at a conference Towards ultra-high efficient photovoltaics with perovskite / crystalline silicon tandem devices 14.09.2015 Hamburg, Germany Ballif Christophe; Weng Ching-Hsun;
E-MRS Spring Meeting Poster Near Infrared Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells for Tandem Application with CIGS 15.05.2015 Lille, France Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
HOPV - Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics Poster High Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells 11.05.2015 Rome, Italy Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
MRS Spring Meeting Poster Development of Near Infrared Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells for Tandem Application with Cu(In,Ga)Se2, poster 06.04.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
MRS Spring Meeting 2015 Poster Infrared Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells for Tandem Application with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 06.04.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;
HOPV Poster Controlled Growth of PbI2 nanoplates for Rapid Preparation of CH3NH3PbI3 in High Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells 06.04.2015 Rome, Italy Tiwari Ayodhya Nath;


Abstract

Photovoltaic devices rely on high-performance active absorber materials that efficiently convert light into charge carrier pairs (electrons and holes). Interfaces between active layers or between electrodes and active layers are arguably as important for good device performance, as they govern separation, recombination as well as collection of charge carriers. Interfacial layers may also be present in tandem solar cells for example as recombination junction between top and bottom cell. They may optimize light management in the device.The specific goal of this project is to develop a joint tool box of film deposition techniques and interface preparation techniques for improved contact formation. We aim at developing layers with properties with tuned work function needed for efficient charge collection (high work function for hole collection layers, low work function for electron collecting layers); appropriate refractive indices if optical functionality is required (e.g. as anti-reflective coating or intermediate reflector in a tandem design), soft deposition (not leading to damage of the optical absorber), transparency (needed for front contact, but also in future tandem configurations), high mobility if lateral conductivity is needed. These layers will be applied to the state-of-the-art processes of the individual labs, covering a wide range of devices, including CIGS based solar cells, perovskite solar cells and crystalline silicone heterojunction devices.
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