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Morality and the development of national parks: Social and political negotiations in Abel Tasman National Park (New Zealand) and in Park Adula (Switzerland)

Titel Englisch Morality and the development of national parks: Social and political negotiations in Abel Tasman National Park (New Zealand) and in Park Adula (Switzerland)
Gesuchsteller/in Graefe Olivier
Nummer 152785
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Unité de Géographie Département des Géosciences Université de Fribourg
Hochschule Universität Freiburg – FR
Hauptdisziplin Human- und Wirtschaftsgeografie, Humanökologie
Beginn/Ende 01.06.2014 - 31.05.2018
Bewilligter Betrag 460'216.00
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Keywords (6)

Environmental Geography; Political Ecology; Park identities; National Park management; Environmental ethics; Nature conservation

Lay Summary (Deutsch)

Lead
Nationalparks werden weltweit als wichtige Werkzeuge für den Schutz einzigartiger Landschaften, seltener und bedrohter Spezies, wichtiger Ökosysteme und der Biodiversität eingesetzt. Seit der Gründung des Yellowstone Nationalparks Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts wurde das Konzept «Nationalpark» in verschiedenste politische, soziale und ökologische Kontexte transferiert und umgesetzt. Als Konsequenz dieser globalen Verbreitung wurden Nationalparks und andere Schutzgebiete zum Gegenstand für Forschungen mit humangeographischem und politisch-ökologischem Hintergrund. Diese betont, wie politisch diese Form der Landnutzung (bzw. Nicht-Nutzung) ist und welche Rolle des Weiteren bestimmte soziale, historische, ökonomische und ökologische Rahmenbedingungen bei Verhandlungen um die Errichtung und Ausrichtung von Parks spielen.
Lay summary

Im Projekt «Park Moralities» wird ein Vergleich zwischen dem neuseeländischen Abel Tasman Nationalpark und dem schweizerischen Parc Adula-Projekt angestrebt. Das Ziel ist es dabei, die Bewertungen der Umwelt und damit verknüpfte Begründungen in ihrem spezifischen sozialen, politischen und ökologischen Kontext auszuloten. Damit sollen einerseits Moralvorstellungen herausgearbeitet werden, die in Aushandlungsprozessen zum Tragen kommen. Andererseits soll identifiziert werden, inwieweit bestimmte Moralvorstellungen in den Verhandlungen beteiligte Akteure mobilisieren. Darüberhinaus wird ihre Bedeutung für die Produktion und Reproduktion von Räumen analysiert. Der Aufforderung folgend, Erkenntnisse und Methoden der politischen Ökologie aus dem globalen Süden auch im globalen Norden anzuwenden, wird der erwähnte Vergleich mehr als Methode denn als Ziel der Forschung verstanden. Theoretisch bezieht sich das Projekt auf neuere soziologische Studien zu Kulturvergleichen, Bewertungsmustern und  Begründungen von Entscheidungen. In beiden Fallstudien werden ethnographische Methoden sowie Dokumentenanalysen (Texte und Bilder) angewandt, um Moralvorstellungen und ihre Einbettung in die Alltagspraxis von an Aushandlungsprozessen beteiligten Akteuren zu erfassen. Beteiligt sind Geographen der Universitäten Fribourg und Zürich. Eine wichtige Komponente des komparativen Anspruchs des Forschungsprojektes ist die enge Zusammenarbeit der Forschenden bei der Entwicklung und Durchführung der Erhebungen und Analysemethoden.

 Ein übergeordnetes Ziel des Projektes ist es, die Rolle von Moralvorstellungen auf die Agenda von Parkforschung und –management im globalen Norden zu setzen. Darüber hinaus soll die eingehende Analyse von Aushandlungsprozessen und Moralvorstellungen in den beiden Parks bzw. Parkprojekten den Parkadministratoren Informationen geben über die gemeinsamen Interessen, Prinzipien und Grundlagen liefern, die für den Dialog und die Konsensfindung in Diskussionen in und über Parks von Nutzen sind.

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 15.04.2014

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Throughout the world, national parks are perceived to be an important conservation tool for the protection of unique landscapes, rare and endangered species, important ecosystems as well as biodiversity. Since the establishment of Yellowstone at the end of the 19th century, the national park concept has been transferred to a large and astonishing diverse number of political, social and environmental settings world-wide. Following this global proliferation, national parks and protected areas have become a large and complex topic for political ecologists’ studying within the fields of contemporary human geography. Within this topic, political ecologists’ have highlighted how inherently political this form of land use is, as well as the important role that specific social, political, historical, economic and environmental contexts play in park negotiations, and in the types of spaces and places that are produced and reproduced.
Lay summary

This project undertakes a comparison of the Abel Tasman national park of New Zealand and Park Adula candidate national park of Switzerland. The aim here is to explore environmental evaluations and the justifications attached to these evaluations, in their specific social, political and environmental contexts, in order to identify and understand distinctive moral foundations within park negotiations. Key emphasis will be placed on understanding the types of moralities that stakeholders are both mobilized by, and act as mobilizer of, within park negotiations, as well as understanding the role that these moralities play in the production and re-production of national park spaces, places and natures. A comparison will be used as a method rather than an aim, to explore and understand the processes of morality in park negotiations, as well as grasp the role that this process plays in the understandings and meanings that are attached to national parks. The theoretical framework for understanding and comparing these moralities will engage with recent sociological work on cultural comparisons of patterns of evaluation and justification. Ethnographic methods and analysis of documents (including text and images) will be used to gain understandings of the moralities embedded within the ordinary practices of park actors as they participate in park negotiations. 

Thus, this project’s contribution to broader debates is to put the role of morality onto the agenda of research and management of national parks. Furthermore, by closely monitoring the negotiations that are occurring in these two parks, this study will inform park administrators as to common interests and principles, foundations for dialogue and compromises within park discussions. Thus this study will contribute to adjust negotiations between stakeholders in opposition and ultimately, provide answers to the role democracy and the participation of people plays in the creation and management of conservation areas in Switzerland and New Zealand.

 

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 15.04.2014

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Abstract

National parks are considered to be the most important global conservation tool. Since the establishment of Yellowstone at the end of the 19th century, the national park concept has been transferred to a large and astonishing diverse number of political, social and environmental settings world-wide. Following this global proliferation – 18 parks or park projects do exist in Switzerland alone – , national parks and protection areas, particularly those located in the global south countries, have become a large and complex topic for political ecologists’ studying within the fields of contemporary human geography. Within this topic, political ecologists have highlighted how inherently political this form of land use is, as well as the important role that specific social, political, historical, economic and environmental contexts play in park negotiations, and in the types of spaces and places that are produced and reproduced. This project will undertake a comparison of the Abel Tasman national park of New Zealand and Park Adula candidate national park of Switzerland. The aim here is to explore environmental evaluations and the justifications attached to these evaluations, in their specific social, political and environmental contexts, in order to identify and understand distinctive moral foundations within the negotiations that surround the development and management of national parks. Key emphasis will be placed on understanding the way moralities are reflected in the spaces and nature produced in parks, and what moralities are carried in the meanings and understandings attached to national parks? Taking up the call for a transfer of global south political ecological insights and methods to global north contexts (and thus closing a gap), a comparison will be used as a method rather than an aim, to explore and contrast the role of the contexts on the moral values within the production of national park spaces. The theoretical framework for understanding and comparing these moralities will engage with Thévenot, Moody & Lafaye (2000) work on cultural comparisons of patterns of evaluation and justification, with an aim to view the effect that these moral struggles have on the production and reproduction of spaces of and places in national parks. In both case studies ethnographic methods and analysis of documents (including text and images) will be used to gain understandings of the moralities embedded within the ordinary practices of park actors as they participate in park negotiations. A strong component of this comparative aim is the close collaboration of researchers including two PhD students based at the Universities of Fribourg and Zurich in the development and implementation of data collection and analysis methodologies. This project’s contribution to broader debates is thus twofold: first, to put the role of morality onto the agenda of research and management of national parks in the global north. Second, to go a step further than stating that context is important in environmental debates, by enquiring into what these contexts mean for the emergence of conservation moralities.
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