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Contact, mobility and authenticity: language ideologies in koineisation and creolisation

Applicant Britain David
Number 146240
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für englische Sprachen und Literaturen Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline German and English languages and literature
Start/End 01.08.2013 - 31.01.2017
Approved amount 397'817.00
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Keywords (7)

language contact; koineisation; authenticity; creolisation; language ideologies; mobility; new dialect formation

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
In Diskursen über Sprache und Dialekt haben Laien wie auch Akademiker Mobilität oft als Bedrohung und störenden Einfluss auf "authentische" Sprechformen dargestellt. Diese Arbeit untersucht öffentliche Meinungsäusserungen zu zwei neuen Sprachen (Tok Pisin und Hawai’i Creole English) und zwei neuen Dialekten (New Zealand English und Estuary English), um zu erforschen, wie sich Sprachideologien entwickeln, wenn neue Sprachvarietäten entstehen und an Stabilität sowie Legitimität gewinnen.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts

Wo leben die "authentischsten" Dialektsprecher? Oft wird in öffentlichen und akademischen Diskursen über Sprache und Dialekt nach dem idealen "authentischen" Sprecher gesucht. Mobilität wird dabei als hinderlich wahrgenommen, mobile Sprecher gemieden. Die Existenz eines "authentischen sesshaften Sprechers" ist eine Ideologie, die einerseits die Dialektologie geprägt hat und andererseits beeinflusst, wie Menschen und Institutionen (z.B. die Medien) Sprache diskutieren und repräsentieren. Wir sprechen hierbei von Sedentarismus.

Dieses Projekt untersucht Diskurse über neue Sprachvarietäten (Kreolen, die durch die Vermischung von Sprachen entstehen, und Koinés, die durch die Vermischung von Dialekten entstehen). Gerade weil jene Varietäten durch ausgeprägte Mobilität entstanden sind, stellen sie eine Herausforderung für ideologische Vorstellungen über "authentische" Sprache und Sprecher dar. Diese Arbeit behandelt die Rolle sedentaristischer Ideologien in Debatten über solche Varietäten.

Durchgeführt werden drei Teilprojekte: eine kritische Abhandlung über den Sedentarismus in der Dialektologie der vergangenen 150 Jahre, sowie zwei Projekte, welche die öffentlichen Diskurse über zwei Kreolen beziehungsweise Koinés vergleichen. Zwei Varietäten (Tok Pisin und New Zealand English) haben einen gewissen Grad an Legitimität erreicht und gelten als eigenständig und "authentisch". Die anderen (Hawai'i Creole English und Estuary English) haben diese Legitimität nicht erreicht, ihr Status ist umstritten.

                          

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext

Trotz ausgedehnter Forschung über die Entstehung neuer Dialekte und Sprachen, wurde bisher nicht eingehend untersucht, wie diese sprachlichen Prozesse von den entsprechenden Gemeinschaften verstanden, bewertet und verarbeitet werden.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.06.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Beyond the ‘gentry aesthetic’: elites, Received Pronunciation and the dialectological gaze in England.
BritainDavid (2018), Beyond the ‘gentry aesthetic’: elites, Received Pronunciation and the dialectological gaze in England., in Thurlow & Jaworski Crispin & Adam (ed.), Routledge, London, 110-120.
Beyond the ‘gentry aesthetic’: elites, Received Pronunciation and the dialectological gaze in England
Britain David (2017), Beyond the ‘gentry aesthetic’: elites, Received Pronunciation and the dialectological gaze in England, in Social Semiotics, 27, 288-298.
Which way to look?: Perspectives on “Urban” and “Rural” in dialectology
Britain David (2017), Which way to look?: Perspectives on “Urban” and “Rural” in dialectology, in Moore & Montgomery Emma and Chris (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 171-188.
Sedentarism and nomadism in sociolinguistic dialectology
Britain David (2016), Sedentarism and nomadism in sociolinguistic dialectology, in Coupland Nikolas (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 217-241.

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Second International Conference on Sociolinguistics Talk given at a conference “Their Tok Pisin is so corrupted”: The re-appropriation of language ideologies in standardisation debates in Papua New Guinea 06.09.2018 Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary Neuenschwander Christoph;
Guest Lecture Individual talk To [r] is to be rural: the phonological construction of the countryside in southern England 05.09.2018 University of Oslo, Norway Britain David;
Sociolinguistics Symposium 22 Talk given at a conference The story of Babel in language ideological debates on Hawai’i Creole and Tok Pisin 30.06.2018 University of Auckland, New Zealand Neuenschwander Christoph;
Sociolinguistics Symposium 22 Talk given at a conference The discursive construction of ‘violent societies’: colonial stereotypes in the representation of island communities in the Pacific [with Sara Lynch] 30.06.2018 University of Auckland, New Zealand Neuenschwander Christoph;
Language, Place and Peripherality Conference Talk given at a conference “R is for Rural”: Phonologically constructing the rural other in Southern England. 18.01.2018 University of Copenhagen, Denmark Britain David;
Gastvortrag: Seminar World Englishes Individual talk Varieties of English? The trouble with defining Pidgins and Creoles 16.11.2017 Universite de Lausanne, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Gastvortrag, Seminar Language Diversity Individual talk Language Ideology in Pidgin and Creole Debates 11.10.2017 Universitaet Bern, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Studies of Paradise: where language meets culture in the Pacific Talk given at a conference “I Owe You Money O’ Wot?” Hawai‛i Creole between commodification and demarcation 09.03.2017 University of Bern, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Guest Lecture Individual talk “I Understand Pidgin”: Negotiating Ownership in the Commodification of Hawai‛i Creole 03.03.2017 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Villejuif, France Neuenschwander Christoph;
Journée Creole Talk given at a conference Negotiating Ownership in the Commodification of Hawai‛i Creole 03.03.2017 University of Regensburg, Germany Neuenschwander Christoph;
ALAA (Applied Linguistics Association of Australia) Conference, and ALS (Australian Linguistic Society) Conference Talk given at a conference Effects of academic interventions: Language ideologies in linguistic research and beyond in the case of Tok Pisin and Hawai‛i Creole. 05.12.2016 Monash University, Australia Neuenschwander Christoph;
Dialects in the Periphery Workshop Talk given at a conference Dialects, mobilities and places, urban and rural. 16.11.2016 Department of Nordic Dialectology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Britain David;
XVème Colloque International des Etudes Créoles Talk given at a conference Tok Pisin and the Myth of the ‘Official Language’ 02.11.2016 Université des Antilles, Guadeloupe Neuenschwander Christoph;
Conference of Applied Linguistics “Languages and People: Diversity and Harmony” Talk given at a conference Linguistics and Mythology: How Tok Pisin became an ‘Official Language’ 28.09.2016 Vilnius University , Lithuania Neuenschwander Christoph;
Pacific Englishes Workshop Talk given at a conference Simple languages in a complex world: colonial ideologies in postcolonial metalinguistic debates on Tok Pisin and Hawai'i Creole 27.06.2016 FRIAS, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany Neuenschwander Christoph;
Sociolinguistics Symposium 21 Talk given at a conference Sociolinguistics, space and mobility 15.06.2016 Universidad de Murcia, Spain Britain David;
Sociolinguistics Symposium 21 Talk given at a conference Negotiating prestige in postcolonial metalinguistic discourse: Case studies on Tok Pisin and Hawai'i Creole English 15.06.2016 Universidad de Murcia, Spain Neuenschwander Christoph;
Sociolinguistics Symposium 21 Talk given at a conference Still moving?: Sedentarist tendencies in sociolinguistic research on the geographical diffusion of innovations 15.06.2016 Universidad de Murcia, Spain Britain David;
Koloniallinguistik als Bremer Forschungsfeld (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Ozeaniens) lecture series. Individual talk “But I can speak good English, too”: Colonialist language ideologies in modern Papua New Guinea and Hawai‛i. 26.05.2016 Bremen, Germany Neuenschwander Christoph;
Ringvorlesung zu Koloniallinguistik/ Oceania and Colonial Linguistics Individual talk “But I can speak good English, too”: Colonialist language ideologies in modern Papua New Guinea and Hawai‛i. 19.05.2016 University of Bremen, Germany Neuenschwander Christoph;
Workshop on dialect acquisition and migration Talk given at a conference Challenges and opportunities for future research on the acquisition of dialects and the development of "new" lects by immigrant groups in Europe. 13.04.2016 University of Oslo, Norway Britain David;
Writing Language in Society Talk given at a conference Establishing a methodological framework in Language Ideology: On the analysis of metalinguistic debates on Tok Pisin and Hawai'i Creole. 11.04.2016 Muntelier, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Elite discourse round table Talk given at a conference Peopling RP: accents, elites and the dialectological gaze 05.04.2016 Schloss Huningen, Stalden-i-E, Switzerland Britain David;
BELing Colloquium Individual talk Introducing 'The Voice of Hawai'i' 22.03.2016 Bern, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
2nd International Workshop on Dialect in the Periphery Talk given at a conference Linguistics and Mythology: How Tok Pisin became a 'National Language' 01.03.2016 Bern, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Invited talk, Leiden University's Bridging the Unbridgeable Research Group Individual talk Authenticating a koiné: language ideological debates on New Zealand English 19.11.2015 Leiden University, Netherlands Tresch Laura;
BELing Colloquium Individual talk The bastard language of Babel: Authenticating Tok Pisin. 17.11.2015 Bern, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Communication in the country of Babel: language ideological debates in contact settings Talk given at a conference Still movement: Sedentarism in sociolinguistic research on dialect diffusion 11.11.2015 University of Bern, Switzerland Britain David;
Conference on Transcultural Urban Spaces: Where language meets geography Talk given at a conference Escape to the country?: The dialectological consequences of urban perceptions of and migration to rural England 16.10.2015 University of Bern, Switzerland Britain David;
BELing Colloquium Individual talk Ideologies of Linguistic Authenticity: New Zealand English then and now 22.09.2015 University of Bern, Switzerland Tresch Laura;
Dublin Sociolinguistics Summer School 2015 (SSS6) Talk given at a conference Linguistic Legitimacy and Authenticity: Language Ideologies in Koinéization 04.08.2015 Dublin, Ireland Tresch Laura;
University of Bern Center for the Study of Language and Society Summer School 2015, 'Language in Social Context' Talk given at a conference Ideologies in Koineization: New Zealand English, Identity and Authenticity. 29.06.2015 Ligerz, Switzerland Tresch Laura;
University of Bern Center for the Study of Language and Society Summer School 2015, 'Language in Social Context' Talk given at a conference Authenticating a creole: Language ideological debates on Tok Pisin 29.06.2015 Ligerz, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Conference on the Sociolinguistics of Globalisation Talk given at a conference A tale of more than two cities: reflections on language change in London and Paris. 03.06.2015 University of Hong Kong, Hongkong Britain David;
Conference on the Sociolinguistics of Globalisation Talk given at a conference Linguistic Legitimacy in a Global Context: Language Ideologies, Creoles and Koines. 03.06.2015 University of Hong Kong, Hongkong Neuenschwander Christoph; Tresch Laura;
Language Change and Migration Invited Lecture Series Individual talk Mundane mobilities and their linguistic consequences 19.05.2015 Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany Britain David;
“Da Pidgin Coup” Pidgin and Creole Research Group Individual talk Comparing language ideologies: Tok Pisin and Hawai’i Creole English 04.05.2015 University of Hawai’i at Manoa, United States of America Neuenschwander Christoph;
Conference Universitaire de Suisse Occidentale (CUSO) Workshop 'Conducting Sociolinguistic Research on Englishes Near and Far' Talk given at a conference Metalinguistic Data Collection: New Zealand English and ‘Estuary English’ 27.03.2015 Muenchenwiler, Switzerland Tresch Laura;
University of Copenhagen Winter School in Sociolinguistics 2015 Talk given at a conference Language Ideologies in Koinéisation: New Zealand English, Legitimate because Authentic? 16.03.2015 Copenhagen, Denmark Tresch Laura;
Spitzenforschung an der Universitaet Bern, Collegium Generale Individual talk Research at the Language-Society Interface 12.11.2014 University of Bern, Switzerland Britain David;
Official opening of the University of Bern’s Faculty of Humanities Research Pool Poster Contact, mobility and authenticity: language ideologies in koineisation and creolisation 30.10.2014 Bern, Switzerland Tresch Laura; Neuenschwander Christoph;
6. Kolloquium des "Forums Sprachvariation" der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Dialektologie des Deutschen (IGDD) / 3. Nachwuchskolloquium des "Vereins für niederdeutsche Sprachforschung" (VndS). Talk given at a conference  Innovative dialects, conservative ideologies: language variation and change in England's 'green and pleasant land' 17.10.2014 University of Zurich, Switzerland Britain David;
LANGNET (Finnish Graduate School in Language Studies) doctoral workshop Individual talk The evolution of dialectology as a social science: from stasis to mobility 25.09.2014 University of Tampere, Finland Britain David;
Nacht der Forschung, Universitaet Bern Poster Contact, mobility and authenticity: language ideologies in koineisation and creolisation 06.09.2014 Bern, Switzerland Tresch Laura; Neuenschwander Christoph;
3rd International Society for the Linguistics of English conference Talk given at a conference Linguistic diffusion and the social heterogeneity of space and mobility 26.08.2014 University of Zurich, Switzerland Britain David;
3rd International Society for the Linguistics of English conference: Workshop on Traversing super-, trans- and inter-. Talk given at a conference Reflecting on the need for new clothes 26.08.2014 University of Zurich, Switzerland Britain David;
PhD and staff research seminar, School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies Individual talk Metalinguistic commentary and the legitimisation of New Zealand English 14.04.2014 Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Tresch Laura;
Center for the Study of Language and Society Winter School on Language in Social Context Talk given at a conference Language ideologies in the legitimization of Tok Pisin as a lingua franca 13.01.2014 Kandersteg, Switzerland Neuenschwander Christoph;
Center for the Study of Language and Society Winter School on Language in Social Context Talk given at a conference Language ideologies: the formation and legitimisation of New Zealand English 13.01.2014 Kandersteg, Switzerland Tresch Laura;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Language ideologies in the media: Postcolonial and Сreole discourses [with Alla Klimenkowa and Philipp Krämer]. Panel at Second International Conference on Sociolinguistics 06.09.2018 Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest., Hungary

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Contact, Mobility and Authenticity: Language Ideologies in Creolisation and Koinéisation Website International 2014
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Tok Pisin i go we Papua New Guinea Attitude website International 2014
Other activities Language Ideologies Project Website International 2013

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
165323 "The Queen doesn't speak the Queen's English": 'Received Pronunciation' and Ideologies of Linguistic Authority in the 21st Century 01.10.2016 Doc.Mobility

Abstract

Throughout almost the entire history of dialectology, researchers, consciously or not, have sought rather ‘idealised’ ‘authentic’ speakers for their research. For traditional dialectologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in the search of the ‘oldest’, ‘purest’ forms of the dialect alive, these authentic speakers were non-mobile, old, rural men, who, it was argued, were the least influenced by the standard language or the language of the city. Later, although dialectologists did go to the city in search of data, they still retained a rather ‘pure’ sanitised view of who was an appropriate speaker. So while women and young adults were now incorporated, people not born and bred in those communities, were not. That there exist ‘authentic’ speakers of dialect is an ideology that, of course, shapes the way we conduct dialectology and consequently shapes the results we gain from our analyses. It is, of course, but one ideology among many that relate to dialect in particular and to language in general.. Another is historicity - the view that ‘real’ languages and dialects have great historical depth. Another is that of the ‘vernacular’ - the idea that the most valid, real, structured and internally coherent and most linguistically interesting form of dialect is the most informal, relaxed, unmonitored language used among close family and friends. This authentic pure speech, spoken throughout time among authentic isolated speakers, is, of course, an unattainable myth. There are many language varieties, especially creoles, created through language mixture, and koines, created through dialect mixture, that present an especially serious challenge to ideologies about what ‘legitimate’ languages and dialects look like and who speaks them. Their very genesis stems from mobility - from use as trade languages (creoles), or from from mass migrations, (koines). Given the centrality of mobility to the formation of these varieties, this project examines both academic dialectological discourses about mobility as well as public discourses about creoles and koines by critically examining, as have many contemporary sociologists and human geographers, one very pervasive ideology, which Cresswell (2006: 55) calls ‘sedentarism’ - ‘a way of thinking and acting that sees mobility as suspicious, as threatening and as a problem’. This project will show that sedentarist ideologies drive much public and academic discourse about language varieties that are formed in contexts of dramatic mobility. The project consists of three subprojects: the first, to be conducted by the applicant, examines theoretical and methodological practice in academic dialectology over the past 150 years from a critique of sedentarism. The second and third projects, to be conducted by PhD students, each examine ideological discourses surrounding the formation, development and status of two contrasting koines and two contrasting creoles. In each, they will investigate two such varieties, one which has gained, over time, a degree of legitimacy as a distinct, authentic form of language, and another which has not gained such legitimacy and whose status is still contested and unclear. These two varieties in the case of the second project, on new dialects, are New Zealand English and ‘Estuary English’ of south-east England, while the third project, on new languages, will examine Tok Pisin, spoken in Papua New Guinea, and Hawai’ian Creole English. In each case public discourses from the past 50 years about these language varieties will be examined in order to establish operative language ideologies, especially those driven from the sedentarist perspective outlined and critiqued by Cresswell. Outputs will include two PhD theses, a workshop on language ideologies in language contact situations, and a subsequent conference proceedings volume, articles in international refereed journals, as well as numerous conference presentations, both locally and internationally.
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