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Earthquake-Resistant Timber Systems for Multi-Storey Buildings

English title Earthquake-Resistant Timber Systems for Multi-Storey Buildings
Applicant Steiger René
Number 136900
Funding scheme NRP 66 Resource Wood
Research institution Eidg. Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA)
Institution of higher education Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology - EMPA
Main discipline Civil Engineering
Start/End 01.10.2012 - 31.12.2016
Approved amount 562'591.00
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Keywords (12)

Multi-Storey Timber Buildings; Cyclic-Static Test; Capacity Design Method; Effective Stiffness; Standardised Timber Component; Design For Wind; Dissipative Behaviour; Performance-Based Design; Displacement-Based Design; Earthquake-Resistant Timber Systems; Seismic Design; Ductile Timber Connections

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Erdbebengerechtes Holztragwerk für mehrgeschossige Bauwerke Im Mittelpunkt dieses Projekts steht das Verhalten von Verbindungen und Wandelementen in Holzbauten bei Erdbeben oder starkem Wind. Ziel ist es, ein optimiertes Holztragwerksystem für mehrgeschossige Holzbauten und die dafür notwendigen Bemessungsmethoden zu entwickeln.
Lay summary

Hintergrund
Verbesserungen im Bemessungs- und Konstruktionsprozess, Fortschritte beim Brandschutz sowie die heute breite gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz von Holz als Baumaterial ermöglichen es, Wohn-, Büro und Schulbauten bis zu mittleren Stockwerkshöhen vollständig aus Holz zu bauen. Mehrgeschossige Holztragwerke bedürfen jedoch einer Weiterentwicklung, um insbesondere das Verhalten der horizontalen Aussteifungselemente und deren Bemessung bei Erdbeben- und Windbeanspruchung zu optimieren. Massgeblich dafür sind Wind- und Erdbebenstärken, wie sie in der Schweiz vorherrschen. Energieverbrauch, Schallschutz, Schwingungen, Brandschutz sowie der Ressourcenverbrauch fliessen als Randbedingungen in die Betrachtungen ein.

Ziel
In diesem Projekt entwickeln die Forschenden ein Tragwerksystem für mehrgeschossige Holzbauten, das speziell für horizontale Beanspruchung ausgelegt ist. Die dabei verwendete Bemessungsmethode ist verformungsbasiert und baut auf den Grundsätzen der Kapazitätstheorie auf: Es werden Zonen des Tragwerks definiert, welche sich bei einem Extremereignis inelastisch verformen, bzw. elastisch bleiben. Das Projekt ist in drei Module gegliedert: In Modul 1 steht das Verhalten von Verbindungen unter zyklischer Beanspruchung im Mittelpunkt, in Modul 2 das Verhalten von Wandelementen und von relevanten, angrenzenden Tragwerksteilen und in Modul 3 das Verhalten des Gesamttragwerks sowie dessen Bemessung.

Bedeutung
Ein Tragwerksystem für mehrgeschossige Holzbauten, das speziell für Erdbeben oder Windereignisse optimiert ist, wird Holz gegenüber anderen Baustoffen konkurrenzfähiger machen. Die in diesem Projekt anvisierte Standardisierung der Verbindungen und die Weiterentwicklung der Bemessungsmethoden können dazu beitragen, mehrgeschossige Holzbauten zuverlässiger, wirtschaftlicher und planungssicherer zu machen.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 30.01.2013

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Ouvrage porteur en bois résistant aux séismes pour bâtiments à plusieurs étages Le comportement en cas de séismes ou de vents violents des assemblages et des éléments muraux des bâtiments en bois constitue le cœur de ce projet. Son objectif est la mise au point d’une structure porteuse optimisée pour les bâtiments à plusieurs étages et des méthodes de dimensionnement nécessaires à cet effet.
Lay summary

Contexte
Grâce aux améliorations des processus de dimensionnement et de construction, aux progrès de la lutte anti-incendie et à la vaste acceptation par la société du bois comme matériau de construction, il est désormais possible de construire entièrement en bois les étages inférieurs des logements, bureaux et écoles. Les structures porteuses de plusieurs étages doivent toutefois encore être peaufinées, notamment pour optimiser le comportement des éléments de renforcement horizontal et leur dimensionnement sous l’effet des sollicitations causées par des séismes et des vents forts. La force des vents et la magnitude des séismes, telles qu’on les connaît en Suisse, font office de référence.

But
Dans ce projet, les chercheurs mettent au point un système de structure porteuse pour bâtiments à plusieurs étages spécialement conçu pour la sollicitation horizontale. La méthode de dimensionnement employée est basée sur la déformation et repose sur les principes de la théorie de la capacité: elle définit les zones de la structure porteuse qui, en cas d’événement extrême, se déforment de façon inélastique et celles qui restent élastiques. Le projet s’articule autour de trois modules: le module 1 est consacré au comportement des assemblages soumis à une sollicitation cyclique, le module 2 au comportement des éléments muraux et des parties importantes voisines de la structure porteuse et le module 3 au comportement de l’ouvrage considéré dans son ensemble ainsi qu’à la méthode de dimensionnement.

Portée
Spécialement optimisé pour les séismes ou les vents violents, un système de structure porteuse destiné aux bâtiments en bois de plusieurs étages va renforcer la compétitivité du bois face aux autres matériaux. La standardisation des assemblages et le perfectionnement des méthodes de dimensionnement envisagés par ce projet peuvent contribuer à augmenter la fiabilité et la sécurité des bâtiments à plusieurs étages et à en réduire le coût.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 30.01.2013

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Earthquake resistant wood structures for multi-storey buildings This project focuses on the behaviour of joints and wall elements in wooden structures during earthquakes and strong winds. The aim is to develop an optimised timber system for multi-storey wooden structures along with the necessary design methods.
Lay summary

Background
Improvements in design and construction processes, advances in fire protection and the widespread acceptance of wood as a building material today make it possible to build residential, office and school buildings up to medium height completely out of wood. However, multi-storey timber structures need to be further developed in order to optimise, in particular, the behaviour of the horizontal bracing elements and their design in the event of earthquakes and strong winds. The earthquake and wind intensities encountered in Switzerland are relevant in this context. Energy use, sound isolation, vibrations, fire protection and the use of resources are the boundary conditions in this study.

Aim
In this project, researchers are developing a timber system for multi-storey wood structures that is specifically designed for horizontal actions. The design method used is deformation-based and builds on the principles of capacity theory: zones that behave elastically or inelastically during an extreme event are defined in the structure. The project is divided into three modules: module 1 studies the behaviour of joints under cyclical loading, module 2 the behaviour of wall elements and relevant adjacent structural elements, and module 3 the behaviour of the entire structure and its design method.

Significance
A timber system for multi-storey wood structures that is especially optimised for earthquakes and extreme wind events as occuring in Switzerland will make wood more competitive in relation to other building materials. The standardisation of joints and further development of design methods envisaged in this project could make multi-storey timber structures more reliable and economical.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 30.01.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
OSB sheathed light-frame timber shear walls with strong anchorage subjected to vertical load, bending moment, and monotonic lateral load
Sadeghi Marzaleh Abdollah, Nerbano Stella, Sebastiani Croce Andrea, Steiger René (2018), OSB sheathed light-frame timber shear walls with strong anchorage subjected to vertical load, bending moment, and monotonic lateral load, in Engineering Structures, 173, 787-799.
Schlussfolgerungen aus dem NFP 66 – Projekt Earthquake-resistant timber system for multi-storey buildings
Steiger René (2018), Schlussfolgerungen aus dem NFP 66 – Projekt Earthquake-resistant timber system for multi-storey buildings, in S-WIN (ed.), S-WIN, Zürich / Biel, 17-24.
Experimental investigation of friction stresses between adjacent panels made of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and between OSB panels and glued laminated timber (GLT) frame members
Steiger René, Fink Gerhard, Nerbano Stella, Hack Erwin, Beyer Katrin (2018), Experimental investigation of friction stresses between adjacent panels made of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and between OSB panels and glued laminated timber (GLT) frame members, in Materials and Structures, 51(1), 2.
Displacement-based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings with the aid of N2 method
Mergos Panagiotis, Beyer Katrin (2015), Displacement-based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings with the aid of N2 method, in Frontiers in Built Environment, 1(Article 10), 1-11.
Experimental modal analysis of a multi-storey light-frame timber building
Steiger R., Feltrin G., Weber F., Nerbano S., Motavalli M. (2015), Experimental modal analysis of a multi-storey light-frame timber building, in Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, online first, 1-27.
Loading protocols for European regions of low to moderate seismicity
Mergos Panagiotis E., Beyer Katrin (2014), Loading protocols for European regions of low to moderate seismicity, in Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 12(6), 2507-2530.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Thomas Wenk, Erdbebeningenieurwesen und Baudynamik GmbH, Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Lignum, Holzwirtschaft Schweiz, Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Pirmin Jung Ingenieure für Holzbau AG, Rain LU Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Artho Holz- und Elementbau AG, St. Gallenkappel SG Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
World Conference on Timber Engineering WCTE 2016 Talk given at a conference On-site dynamic testing of a light-frame timber building 22.08.2016 Vienna, Austria Nerbano Stella; Steiger René;
2nd Meeting of the International Network on Timber Engineering Research INTER 2016 Talk given at a conference Ambient and forced vibration testing of a light-frame timber building – Conclusions regarding design of the lateral load resisting system 16.08.2016 Graz, Austria Sadeghi Marzaleh Abdollah; Steiger René;
Cost FP1402 - Basis of structural timber design - from research to standards - Keynote to the Kick-off meeting Talk given at a conference CLT research, transfer and eingineering 12.03.2015 Karlsruhe, Germany Bernasconi Andrea;
Closing Workshop on the ITU-ISTKA Project "Large-scale and/or on-site structural testing for seismic performance assessment" 2014 Talk given at a conference Assessment of the dynamic behavior of a 3-story residential light-frame timber building in Switzerland 20.10.2014 Istanbul, Turkey Steiger René;
Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology Talk given at a conference Loading protocols for European regions of low to moderate seismicity 25.08.2014 Istanbul, Turkey Beyer Katrin; Mergos Panagiotis;
Vienna Congress on Recent Advances in Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics Talk given at a conference Developing cyclic loading protocols for regions of low to moderate seismicity 28.08.2013 Wien, Austria Beyer Katrin; Mergos Panagiotis;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
S-WIN Tagung 2018: Von der Forschung zur Praxis: Neue Lösungen für den Holzbau: Erdbeben und Qualitätssicherung Talk 16.05.2018 Biel, Switzerland Steiger René;
Kurs CAS "Erdbebengerechte Holzbauten": Vertiefte Weiterbildung für Holz- und Bauingenieure Talk 09.09.2016 Biel, Switzerland Steiger René;
Fourth NRP 66 Annual Meeting 2016 Talk 14.04.2016 Olten, Switzerland Bernasconi Andrea; Steiger René; Beyer Katrin;
Kurs CAS en génie parasismique Talk 09.12.2015 Fribourg, Switzerland Bernasconi Andrea;
Third NRP 66 Annual Meeting 2015 Poster 16.04.2015 Thun, Switzerland Beyer Katrin; Mohamad Rudi; Nerbano Stella; Steiger René; Bernasconi Andrea;
Wintertagung 2015 des Swiss Wood Innovation Network S-WIN Talk 22.01.2015 Dübendorf, Switzerland Steiger René;
Kurs CAS en génie parasismique Talk 10.12.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Bernasconi Andrea;
Exposition Programme national de Recherche NFP66 Talk 19.11.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Bernasconi Andrea;
Empa PhD Students' Symposium 2014 Poster 21.10.2014 St. Gallen, Switzerland Steiger René; Nerbano Stella;
Generalversammlung der Schweizer Gesellschaft für Erdbebeningenieurwesen und Baudynamik SGEB 2014 Talk 09.05.2014 Dübendorf, Switzerland Steiger René; Nerbano Stella;
Second NRP 66 Annual Meeting 2014 Poster 10.04.2014 Murten, Switzerland Beyer Katrin; Bernasconi Andrea; Nerbano Stella; Steiger René; Mohamad Rudi;
Tagung Holzbau: Forschung + Praxis 2014 Talk 11.03.2014 Kassel, Germany Nerbano Stella; Steiger René;
Wintertagung 2014 des Swiss Wood Innovation Network S-WIN Talk 23.01.2014 Dübendorf, Switzerland Steiger René;
Empa PhD Students' Symposium 2013 Poster 23.10.2013 Dübendorf, Switzerland Steiger René; Nerbano Stella;
First NRP 66 Annual Meeting 2013 Poster 18.04.2013 Magglingen, Switzerland Bernasconi Andrea; Mergos Panagiotis; Steiger René; Mohamad Rudi; Beyer Katrin; Nerbano Stella;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Les efforts horizontaux dans le dimensionnement des bâtiments en bois Tracés (Vol. 145, issue 11, pp. 6-12) Western Switzerland 2015

Abstract

In the future, an increasing number of residential, office, and school buildings up to the size of mid- to high rise buildings will be completely made out of timber. Continued optimisation of the design and construction process, advancements in fire protection and as a result further liberalisation of fire protection regulations, as well as a broad recognition in society of timber as an ecologic and economic construction material will enhance the competitiveness of timber buildings in Switzerland and neighbouring countries. The classic structural timber systems need to be further developed to comply with all, sometimes conflicting, requirements. A key issue of the structural design for every multi-storey building is an efficient lateral bracing system for seismic actions and wind actions.In the vision timber building, the complete structural system will consist of timber elements. The lateral bracing system consists of a minimum number of slender timber-framed structural walls placed in the facades following conceptual seismic design rules. The design for lateral loading gets more demanding and requires better knowledge about the real elastic and inelastic displacement behaviour of all structural elements.The objective of this research project is to develop a structural system for multi-storey timber buildings addressing in particular their behaviour when subjected to lateral loading. Within this project, the entire building as well as its critical components will be studied. A design strategy based on the principles of the capacity design method will be developed, which clearly identifies zones that are expected to undergo inelastic deformations during extreme events and zones that remain elastic. The design will be optimised for - in global terms - medium seismicity and moderate wind loading, which are typically prevailing in Switzerland. Performance-limits will be defined based on results from experimental tests on connections and wall elements as well as drift limits to control the damage on non-structural componentsThe research project is organised in three modules addressing the seismic behaviour of timber wall buildings at different levels. The research group at Heig-VD studies the cyclic behaviour of timber connections. The research group at Empa addresses the behaviour of wall components while the research group at EPFL studies the behaviour of the entire system and develops a design methodology. The research findings together with the planned standardisation of fastener and connection systems will lead to optimized multi-storey timber buildings for seismic and wind action.
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