Biofuels; Combined Cooling, Heating & Power (CCHP); Hot gas cleaning; Combined Heat & Power (CHP); Fuel wood (Schwachholz); Urban waste wood (Altholz); Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG)
Foppiano Debora, Tarik Mohamed, Müller Gubler Elisabeth, Ludwig Christian (2018), Emissions of Secondary Formed ZnO Nano-Objects from the Combustion of Impregnated Wood. An Online Size-Resolved Elemental Investigation, in Environmental Science & Technology
, 52(2), 895-903.
Edinger Philip, Grimekis Dimitrios, Panopoulos Kyriakos, Karellas Sotirios, Ludwig Christian (2017), Adsorption of thiophene by activated carbon: A global sensitivity analysis, in Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
, 5(4), 4173-4184.
Edinger Philip, Tarik Mohamed, Hess Adrian, Testino Andrea, Ludwig Christian (2016), Online Detection of Selenium and Its Retention in Reducing Gasification Atmosphere, in Energy & Fuels
, 30(2), 1237-1247.
Edinger Philip, Schneebeli J., Struis Rudolf P.W.J., Biollaz Serge M.A., Ludwig Christian (2016), On-line liquid quench sampling and UV–Vis spectroscopy for tar measurements in wood gasification process gases, in Fuel
, 184, 59-68.
The conversion of wood to SNG and electricity has been investigated at PSI since more than ten years. The SNG from wood process was demonstrated successfully in 2009 in the 1 MWSNG pilot scale plant in Güssing, Austria. The conversion of wood gasification derived producer gas by a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) has been shown in 2009 within the European Union Project Biocellus. The challenge lies in the optimal combination of the different process steps in the chain, i.e. gasification, cleaning of the producer gas from the gasifier and final conversion in a synthesis step (fluidised bed methanation) to convert the producer gas to methane-rich gas and the gas-upgrading to yield pipeline-ready SNG (>96% CH4) or to electricity in the SOFC, respectively. There are several directions for further improvement of the process chain with respect to cold gas efficiency, investment costs, operation costs (especially energy consumption) and technical availability. One of these is the implementation of hot gas cleaning which allows omitting scrubbing units and heat exchangers and saves significant amounts of steam.The goal in this project is to gain competence and understanding in the hot cleaning of contaminant-laden fuel gas to protect downstream catalysts. The gained insights will be of generic nature, applicable to a range of processes that convert wood to obtain energy carriers with highest efficiency.Within the subtask “Filtration and reformer”, method development will be in the focus of the first phase. This relates to the development of a sampling system for particle loaded gas at 850°C and for proper balancing of sulphur in hot gas filters. With the impurity concentration in real systems known, systematic experiments will be carried out varying pressures, temperatures, steam content, gas matrix and concentrations of impurities. These data should allow the derivation of applied kinetics for tar conversion which then enables modelling of reformer.Within the subtask “Adsorption of inorganic impurities (S, Cl, K, P, Cd, As, Zn, Pb, etc.)”, the method development for proper sampling for GC-ICP/MS measurements and fine-tuning of the GC-ICP/MS method is the starting activity. Further, the PhD student will introduce himself to the use of the surface Ionisation detector (SID) which allows the measurement of even small quantities of alkali metals in a gas stream. Both methods shall apply in the above mentioned campagins at real gasifiers.