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Chemistry and P-T of fluids trapped in co-genetic opaque ore and transparent gangue minerals: What are the real ore-precipitating fluids?

English title Chemistry and P-T of fluids trapped in co-genetic opaque ore and transparent gangue minerals: What are the real ore-precipitating fluids?
Applicant Kouzmanov Kalin
Number 127123
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Département des sciences de la Terre Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.01.2010 - 31.03.2013
Approved amount 206'360.00
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Keywords (14)

fluid inclusions; IR microscopy and microthermometry; LA-ICP-MS; co-genetic ore and gangue minerals; ore fluids; porphyry-related deposits; gangue minerals; ore minerals; IR microscopy; LA-ICP-MS analysis; ore-formation; epithermal; porphyry; ore deposits

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
The combination of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy and microthermometry and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques makes possible to progress in the analysis of real ore-precipitating fluids. Combining these techniques enables successful analysis of individual fluid inclusions hosted by opaque to the visible light but transparent to the NIR radiation ore minerals. Joining this novel analytical approach and the standard microthermometry on transparent gangue minerals offers new opportunities to compare the chemistry and P-T conditions of entrapment of fluids in texturally co-genetic ore and gangue minerals from different ore deposits styles. This project aims to: i) perform test runs on several gangue/ore mineral pairs from a variety of hydrothermal environments in order to better evaluate the potential application of the methodology to study different ore deposit types and to develop, if necessary, the established analytical protocols; ii) apply the new methodology and undertake a detailed ore minerals-oriented fluid inclusion study on the Butte polymetallic district, Montana, and the Madan polymetallic district, Bulgaria; iii) study the chemistry (by LA-ICP-MS) and stable (oxygen and hydrogen) isotopic composition of enargite-hosted fluid inclusions from the Lepanto epithermal high-sulfidation deposit, Philippines. The three districts offer the possibility to work on fluids trapped in large temperature range - from temperatures as high as >400°C (porphyry environment at Butte and skarn environment at Madan), intermediate temperatures (300-200°C, corresponding roughly to the temperatures of the main polymetallic stage mineralization in the three districts), down to low-temperatures (~100°C). Thus, NIR experiments will cover a temperature range, which is typical for most of the known hydrothermal ore deposits and can be used to assess the applicability of this technique to other ore deposit types.The acquired new results and interpretations will be combined with previous geological, fluid inclusion and stable isotope data on the studied deposits to develop models for fluid processes which govern ore-precipitation mechanisms at the porphyry-epithermal interface (Butte and Lepanto) or in an epithermal environment without direct link with a deeper porphyry system (Madan). Such results would have implications also for general understanding of the mechanisms of hydrothermal ore-formation.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Enargite-luzonite hydrothermal vents in Manus Back-Arc Basin: Submarine analogues of high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization
Dekov Vesselin, Rouxel Olivier, Kouzmanov Kalin, Bindi Luca, Asael Dan, Fouquet Yves, Etoubleau Joël, Burgaud Gaëtan, Wälle Markus (2016), Enargite-luzonite hydrothermal vents in Manus Back-Arc Basin: Submarine analogues of high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization, in Chemical Geology, 438, 36-57.
Hydrothermal controls on metal distribution in porphyry systems
Kouzmanov Kalin, Pokrovski Gleb S. (2012), Hydrothermal controls on metal distribution in porphyry systems, in SEG Special Publication, 16, 573-619.
Gold speciation and transport in geological fluids: insights from experiments and physical-chemical modelling
Pokrovski Gleb, Akinief Nikolay, Borisova Anastassia, Zotov Alexandre, Kouzmanov Kalin, Gold speciation and transport in geological fluids: insights from experiments and physical-chemical modelling, in Geological Society of London Special Publication “Gold-transporting fluids in the Earth’s crust”.
Tennantite-tetrahedrite series from the Madan Pb-Zn deposits, Central Rhodopes, Bulgaria
Vassileva R.D., Atanassova R., Kouzmanov Kalin, Tennantite-tetrahedrite series from the Madan Pb-Zn deposits, Central Rhodopes, Bulgaria, in Mineralogy and Petrology.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
group of Prof. Dirk van der Marel, at the Department of Condensed Matter Physics at the University o Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
group of Prof. L. Diamond, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
group of Prof. Christoph Heinrich at ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Ecole Thématique du CNRS - Ressources Minérales: Du terrain à l'Expérimentation Talk given at a conference Quels sont les « vrais » fluides minéralisateurs dans les systèmes magmatique-hydrothermaux ? Les inclusions fluides dans les minéraux opaques: développement méthodologique, applications, limitations et perspectives 07.06.2016 Université de Toulouse III - P. Sabatier, France Kouzmanov Kalin;
13th SGA Biennial Meeting - Mineral Resources in a sustainable world Talk given at a conference Comparative study of fluid inclusions trapped in co-genetic ore and gangue minerals 24.08.2015 Nancy, France Kouzmanov Kalin; Ortelli Melissa;
12th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster First systematic study of synthetic fluid inclusions in opaque ore minerals: method development 21.11.2014 Frobourg, Switzerland Kouzmanov Kalin;
24e Réunion des Sciences de la Terre Talk given at a conference Microscopie IR associée aux analyses ICP-MS par ablation laser - nouvelle approche méthodologique pour l’étude des fluides minéralisateurs piégés dans des minéraux opaques: Développement, limites et perspectives 27.10.2014 Pau, France Kouzmanov Kalin;
XX CBGA Congress Poster Timing of polymetallic Pb-Zn mineralization in the laki district, southern Bulgaria - constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dates 24.09.2014 Tirana, Albania Kouzmanov Kalin;
11th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Timing of polymetallic Pb-Zn mineralization in the Laki district, southern Bulgaria - constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dates 15.11.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Kouzmanov Kalin;
12th SGA Biennal Meeting 2013 Talk given at a conference Metal zoning and precipitation mechanisms in porphyry systems 11.08.2013 Uppsala, Sweden Kouzmanov Kalin; Ortelli Melissa;
12th SGA Biennial Meeting 2013 Talk given at a conference District-scale fluid evolution from the Main Stage mineralization at Butte, Montana : First results 11.08.2013 Uppsala, Sweden Ortelli Melissa; Kouzmanov Kalin;
Ecole thématique du CNRS - Ressources Minérales. défis scientifiques et sociétaux Talk given at a conference New experimental approaches for studying geological fluids: A paradigm shift in metallogeny? 05.02.2013 Université de Genève, Switzerland Kouzmanov Kalin;
Ecole thématique du CNRS - Ressources Minérales. défis scientifiques et sociétaux Talk given at a conference Hydrothermal controls on metal distribution in porphyry systems 05.02.2013 Université de Genève, Switzerland Kouzmanov Kalin;
10th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference Fluid inclusion study in ore and gangue minerals from Main Stage veins at Butte, Montana 16.11.2012 Bern, Switzerland Ortelli Melissa;
European Mineralogical Conference 2012 Talk given at a conference Hydrothermal controls on metal distribution in porphyry systems 02.09.2012 Frankfurt, Germany Kouzmanov Kalin;
European Mineralogical Conference 2012 Poster Tetarhedrite-tennantite series in the Pb-Zn deposits from the Central Rhodopes: textural relationships, mineral chemistry, and conditions of formation 02.09.2012 Frankfurt, Germany Kouzmanov Kalin;
34th International Geological Congress Talk given at a conference Meteoric water incursion and rapid assimilation by a magmatic-hydrothermal system: In situ microanalysis of delta18O in quartz 05.08.2012 Brisbane, Australia Kouzmanov Kalin;
34th International Geological Congress Talk given at a conference Compositional variations in large sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusion assemblages: Implications for metal transport and deposition in hydrothermal ore deposits 05.08.2012 Brisbane, Australia Kouzmanov Kalin;
22nd V.M.Goldschmidt Conference 2012 Poster Trace-element control on near IR transmittance of pyrite 24.06.2012 Montréal, Canada Ortelli Melissa;
Pan-American Current research on Fluid Inclusions (PACROFI-XI) Talk given at a conference Fluid inclusion study in coexisting quartz and enargite from Main Stage veins at Butte, Montana. 18.06.2012 University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada Ortelli Melissa;
Diversity of copper and gold deposits in the Eastern Europe Balkan, Carpathian and Rhodopean belts: tectonic, magmatic and geochronological investigations: SCOPES Project Talk given at a conference Compositional characteristics of sulphide mineralization from the hydrothermal Madan Pb-Zn deposits: a LA-ICP-MS study 02.06.2012 Stip, Macedonia Kouzmanov Kalin;
Joint 5th Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians Conference and 3rd Central-European Mineralogical Conference Talk given at a conference Compositional variations of the tennantite-tetrahedrite series from the Madan Pb-Zn deposits, Bulgaria: Oscillatory zoning and conditions of formation 20.04.2012 Miskolc, Hungary Kouzmanov Kalin;
9th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Minor and trace elements controlling the visible and near-infrared light transmittance of wolframite, pyrite and enargite 11.11.2011 Zurich, Switzerland Ortelli Melissa; Kouzmanov Kalin;
9th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference Polymetallic mineralization in the Laki mining district Southern Bulgaria: Paragenesis and fluid evolution 11.11.2011 ETH Zurich, Switzerland Kouzmanov Kalin;
MinPet 2011 - Joint Meeting of Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kristallographie, Deutschen Mineralogischen Gesellshaft and Osterreichschen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft Talk given at a conference As-bearing pyrite-marcasite intergrowths from the Pb-Zn Erma Reka deposit, South Bulgaria 20.09.2011 Salzburg, Austria Kouzmanov Kalin;
ECROFI-2011 Talk given at a conference Fluid inclusion microthermometry in coexisting quartz and wolframite – a case study from Morococha, Peru. 09.08.2011 Leoben, Austria, Austria Ortelli Melissa; Kouzmanov Kalin;
National Conference “GEOSCIENCES 2010” Talk given at a conference Minor and trace element content of sulphides from the Madan polymetallic deposits, Central Rhodopes: a LA-ICP-MS study 19.11.2010 Sofia, Bulgaria Kouzmanov Kalin;


Awards

Title Year
2011 SGA-Barrick Young Scientist Award 2011

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
147076 Chemistry and P-T of fluids trapped in co-genetic opaque ore and transparent gangue minerals: What are the real ore-precipitating fluids? 01.04.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
125258 Fluids and ore forming processes in the continental crust (cont) 01.04.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

One of the limitations of the standard approach in fluid inclusion research conducted on ore deposits consists of the difficulty to verify the broadly accepted assumption that gangue minerals, mainly used in fluid inclusions studies, and the intergrown ore minerals are cogenetic. In fact, there is growing evidence that ore mineralization in hydrothermal systems may form from episodic events of multiple fluid sources. The present proposal aims to address this fundamental question by comparing the chemistry and P-T characteristics of well constrained fluid inclusion assemblages from intergrown ore and gangue minerals from selected ore deposits examples from the porphyry-epithermal suite.The combination of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy and microthermometry and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques makes possible to progress in the analysis of real ore-precipitating fluids. Combining these techniques enables successful analysis of individual fluid inclusions hosted by opaque to the visible light but transparent to the NIR radiation ore minerals such as pyrite, enargite, wolframite, hematite, stibnite, and tetrahedrite. Joining this novel analytical approach and the standard microthermometry on transparent gangue minerals offers new opportunities to compare the chemistry and P-T conditions of entrapment of fluids in texturally co-genetic ore and gangue minerals from different ore deposits styles. Additionally, the existence of unique or multiple fluid sources for ore and gangue minerals in hydrothermal ore deposits can be tested using stable isotope analysis of inclusion fluids from both ore and gangue minerals, aiming to trace different fluid processes leading to ore and/or gangue deposition (e.g., fluid mixing or boiling).This proposal seeks funding for three ears for one PhD student to: i) perform test runs on several gangue/ore mineral pairs (e.g., quartz-pyrite, quartz-hematite, quartz-wolframite) from a variety of hydrothermal environments in order to better evaluate the potential application of the new methodology to study different ore deposit types and to develop, if necessary, the established analytical protocols; ii) apply the new methodology and undertake a detailed ore minerals-oriented fluid inclusion study on the Butte polymetallic district, Montana, and the Madan polymetallic district, Bulgaria. The choice of ore deposits is justified by the fact that the geology of both districts is very well studied; relative time relationship between the different mineralizing events are clear; there is a good textural evidence of co-genetic quartz and ore minerals which are suitable for NIR microthermometry; and extensive microthermometry data and LA-ICP-MS results on pre-, syn- and post-ore quartz-hosted fluids are available and can be used as a background for further studies. The two districts offer the possibility to work on fluids trapped in large temperature range - from temperatures as high as >400°C (porphyry and skarn environment at Butte and skarn environment at Madan), intermediate temperatures (300-200°C, corresponding roughly to the temperatures of the main polymetallic stage mineralization), down to low-temperatures (~100°C). Thus, NIR experiments will cover a temperature range, which is typical for most of the known hydrothermal ore deposits and can be used to assess the applicability of this technique to other ore deposit types. The second part of the proposal concerns a sub-project, which will run in parallel and will be conducted by the principal applicant, aiming to study the chemistry (by LA-ICP-MS) and stable (oxygen and hydrogen) isotopic composition of enargite-hosted fluid inclusions from the Lepanto epithermal high-sulfidation deposit, Philippines. Nowhere the spatial association between epithermal and porphyry Cu-Au deposits is better seen than in northern Luzon, where the Lepanto deposit overlies the Far Southeast (FSE) porphyry Cu-Au deposit, both being world-class ore bodies. The neighboring Victoria intermediate-sulfidation vein deposit is part of the same porphyry-epithermal association. The study will be carried out on samples from a profile across the main ore body at Lepanto previously studied by NIR microthermometry, noble gas analysis and sulfur isotope geochemistry, all suggesting progressive mixing with external (meteoric) fluids from the FSE porphyry (center of the system) away laterally.The acquired new results and interpretations will be combined with previous geological, fluid inclusion and stable isotope data on the studied deposits to develop models for fluid processes which govern ore-precipitation mechanisms at the porphyry-epithermal interface (Butte and Lepanto) or in an epithermal environment without direct link with a deeper porphyry system (Madan). Such results would have implications also for general understanding of the mechanisms of hydrothermal ore-formation.This proposal is intended to act as a single, coherent piece of independent research aiming to develop and apply novel analytical approach for studying ore-forming fluids. However, it is coordinated with and complements other projects within the Ore Deposits research group at the Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, which address the tectonic, magmatic and fluid processes leading to formation of time- and space-clustered porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic (-Au-Ag) epithermal deposits at convergent margins. Jointly and in close collaboration with the Isotope Geochemistry research group, these projects intend to establish a widespread and complementary research program at the University of Geneva, using state-of-the-art analytical facilities, aiming to understand geological processes which govern the enrichment of economically important elements in ore deposits.
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