oculomotor; neural integrator; adaptation; human; brain function; retinal image stabilisation; nystagmus; galvanic vestibular stimulation; caloric vestibular stimulation; vestibular tone asymmety; time constant; 3-D eye movements; neural model; vestibular
Bockisch Christopher J, Khojasteh Elham, Straumann Dominik, Hegemann Stefan C A (2013), Eye position dependency of nystagmus during constant vestibular stimulation., in Experimental Brain Research
, 18(3), 161-170.
Egli Gallo Doris, Khojasteh Elham, Gloor Martina, Hegemann Stefan C A (2013), Effectiveness of Systemic High-Dose Dexamethasone Therapy for Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss., in Audiology & neuro-otology
, 18(3), 161-170.
Khojasteh Elham, Bockisch Christopher J, Straumann Dominik, Hegemann Stefan C A (2012), A mechanism for eye position effects on spontaneous nystagmus., in Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and
, 2012, 3572-5.
Khojasteh Elham, Bockisch Christopher J, Straumann Dominik, Hegemann Stefan C A (2012), A re-examination of the time constant of the oculomotor neural integrator in human., in Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and
, 2012, 4780-3.
Bockisch Christopher J, Khojasteh Elham, Straumann Dominik, Hegemann Stefan C A (2012), Development of eye position dependency of slow phase velocity during caloric stimulation., in PloS one
, 7(12), 51409-51409.
Trinh Beckey (2011), Adaptation des okulomotorischen neuralen Integrators während konstanter angulärer Beschleunigung.
Susac Martina (2010), Alexanders Gesetz - Entwicklung der Geschwindigkeit der langsamen Phase des Nystagmus abhängig von der Augenposition während kalorischer Prüfung
The goal of this study is to better understand immediate adaptive processes of the human brain to sudden vestibular asymmetry like in unilateral vestibular deficits (UVD), caloric stimulation (CS) and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Until now, mainly central adaptation of the physiologic vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and long-term adaptive processes after central and peripheral vestibular lesions have been investigated. A key reaction being observed in most patients with acute UVD is Alexander’s law (AL). It states that the velocity of eye drift during nystagmus is dependent on horizontal gaze position. AL is believed to be generated by short term adaptive changes in the oculomotor neural integrator (NI). Integration of eye velocity into eye position signals - in a mathematical sense - is necessary to enable eccentric gaze holding and is performed by a neural network referred to as the oculomotor NI. Lack of integration leads to centripetal eye drift resulting in gaze evoked nystagmus. Gaze evoked nystagmus is assumed to combine with the constant vestibular eye drift of peripheral nystagmus leading to AL. AL usually develops during the first 30 s of nystagmus and is considered a fast adaptive mechanism to help stabilizing gaze at least in one direction. Thus, AL seems optimally suited to study vestibuo-ocular adaptation. Furthermore, the oculomotor NI is the most thoroughly investigated NI so far, providing solid physiological data to depart with. However, there exists no three-dimensional analysis of AL, it is not completely understood how exactly integration is performed by the brain, how adaptation of the NI is triggered and what role it plays in central compensation. To understand these fundamental processes we will pursue the following aims:Aim 1: peripheral nystagmus after UVD usually has not only horizontal but also vertical and torsional components. It is of interest, whether these components also show AL and to what extend relative to the nystagmus velocity, i.e. whether AL affects also the vertical/torsional NI and whether AL will be aligned with the vestibular drift direction. Since torsional nystagmus does not displace images from the fovea, torsional stability seems less important for visual acuity and might, therefore, induce less or no NI-adaptation. In contrast to the NI for horizontal eye movements consisting of a separate population of neurons, the NI neurons for vertical and torsional eye movements are mixed in the N. Cajal. Thus, it is important to know, whether NI adaptation affects vertical and torsional components the same way or differentially, the latter indicating independent vertical and torsional integration, as we hypothesize. To answer these questions we will measure AL 3-D in all gaze directions in patients with acute UVD. Aim 2: we will perform experiments in patients with benign paroxysmal positioning nystagmus (BPPN) and in healthy volunteers using CS and GVS. This enables us to control to a certain extend the onset (CS