Project

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Nanoscale Intercalation into Graphite and Metal Oxides

Applicant Kötz Rüdiger
Number 44040
Funding scheme NRP 36 Nano Sciences
Research institution Paul Scherrer Institut
Institution of higher education Paul Scherrer Institute - PSI
Main discipline Chemistry
Start/End 01.01.1997 - 31.03.2000
Approved amount 143'551.00
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Keywords (7)

ION INSERTION; GRAPHITE; BATTERIES; SPM; INTERCALATION; METAL OXIDES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Ion transfer batteries have received increasing attention in recent years due to the relatively high energy densities available utilizing the ion transfer (also called: rocking chair or swing) concept. During charge/discharge cycles of such batteries, cations (typically Li) are released from one and inserted into the other electrode and vice versa. One important aspect of battery related ion insertion processes are dimensional and mechanical changes of the insertion material. From a fundamental point of view, the energy necessary for the lattice expansion during insertion has to be taken into account when modeling such processes. From a practical point of view, repetitive swelling and shrinking during charge/discharge cycles will lead eventually to disintegration of the electrode material and destroy the battery.Ion insertion (intercalation), being the fundamental process in ion transfer batteries, has been studied extensively for many years in order to investigate the macroscopic changes of the material's properties during insertion. However, up to now, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) has been applied only scarcely for the analysis of ion insertion processes in order to gain information on a local microscopic scale.Aim of the project is the local and time dependent investigation of mechanical (dimension, viscosity, tribology) changes of the host material during electrochemical intercalation processes on the nanometer scale. Various approaches for the reproducible preparation of intercalation edges in HOPG (and later for metal oxides) have to be tested in order to generate steps or holes with defined depth. In addition, a suitable method for sample preparation and SPM measurements in a strictly non-aqueous environment has to be developed.The main emphasize during this project will be put on in situ electrochemical AFM and STM investigations of dimensional changes (swelling, shrinking) in the vicinity of the intercalation edge. In addition to AFM/STM other techniques such as lateral force microscopy (LFM) and force modulation microscopy (FMM) will be applied in order to investigate changes of mechanical properties
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

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