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A child of its time: the impact of world politics on peacebuilding

English title A child of its time: the impact of world politics on peacebuilding
Applicant Hellmüller Sara
Number 185726
Funding scheme PRIMA
Research institution Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies IHEID
Institution of higher education Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies - IHEID
Main discipline Political science
Start/End 01.01.2020 - 31.12.2024
Approved amount 1'387'509.00
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Keywords (7)

World politics; International Relations; Peacebuilding; Eclectic approach; Peace research; Peace operations; United Nations

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Ein Kind seiner Zeit: Die Auswirkungen der Weltpolitik auf die FriedensförderungDie Friedensförderung der Vereinten Nationen steht an einem Wendepunkt. Dies zeigt sich daran, dass gegenwärtige Konflikte wie in Libyen, Syrien und im Jemen nicht angemessen angegangen werden. In den Jahren unmittelbar nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges herrschte in der internationalen Gemeinschaft Einigkeit darüber, dass Friedensmissionen die Ursachen eines Konfliktes beheben und deshalb umfangreiche Mandate haben sollten, einschliesslich des Aufbaus eines liberalen Staates. In den letzten Jahren hat dieser Konsens nachgelassen und wurde durch konkurrierende Ansätze zur Friedensförderung ersetzt.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts

Dieser Wendepunkt in der UN-Friedensförderung kann als Teil eines umfassenderen Wandels in der Weltpolitik verstanden werden. Der zunehmende Einfluss Russlands und Chinas sowie anderer aufstrebender Mächte wie Brasilien, Indien und der Türkei stellt die internationale Vorherrschaft der USA in Frage. Das vorgeschlagene Projekt untersucht, wie dieser Wandel von einer unipolaren zu einer multipolaren Weltordnung die Friedensförderung der Vereinten Nationen beeinflusst.

Im Projekt wird ein Datensatz zu UN-Friedensmissionen seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges erstellt, um zu analysieren, wie sie sich verändert haben. Anschließend wird der Zusammenhang zwischen Weltpolitik und UN-Friedensmissionen eingehend untersucht. Dies geschieht durch eine Inhaltsanalyse der von den Vereinten Nationen verabschiedeten Dokumente zur Friedensförderung und eine eingehende Untersuchung von sechs Fällen, nämlich den UN Friedensmissionen in der Zentralafrikanischen Republik und Mali, den UN Vermittlungen in Syrien und im Jemen und den UN Unterstützungsmissionen in Libyen und Afghanistan.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext

Das Projekt entwickelt eine Theorie dazu, wie die Weltpolitik die Friedensförderung beeinflusst, und liefert damit einen zentralen Beitrag zu den Disziplinen der der Friedensforschung und den Internationalen Beziehungen (IB). Eine solche Makroperspektive auf die Friedensförderung wird letztlich dazu beigetragen, deren Wirksamkeit bei der Bewältigung aktueller Konflikte zu erhöhen.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 08.10.2019

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Un fruit de son époque : l'impact de la politique mondiale sur la consolidation de la paixLa consolidation de la paix de l'ONU se trouve à un tournant décisif, illustré par son incapacité à aborder de manière adéquate les conflits contemporains, comme en Libye, en Syrie et au Yémen. Dans les années qui ont immédiatement suivi la fin de la guerre froide, la communauté internationale s'est accordée à reconnaître que les opérations de paix devaient s'attaquer aux causes profondes des conflits et donc avoir des mandats étendus, y compris la construction d'un État libéral. Ces dernières années, ce consensus s'est estompé et différentes approches de la consolidation de la paix se font concurrence.
Lay summary

Contenu et objectif du projet de recherche

Ce tournant dans la consolidation de la paix de l'ONU peut être compris comme faisant partie de changements plus larges dans la politique mondiale. L'influence croissante de la Russie et de la Chine, ainsi que d'autres puissances montantes, comme le Brésil, l'Inde et la Turquie, remet en question la domination américaine au niveau international. Le projet proposé examine comment ce passage d'un ordre mondial unipolaire à un ordre mondial multipolaire influence la consolidation de la paix des Nations Unies. Il établit une base de données sur les missions de paix de l'ONU depuis la fin de la guerre froide afin d'analyser comment ces dernières ont changé. Une étude approfondie du lien entre la politique mondiale et les missions de paix de l'ONU est ensuite menée. Pour ce faire, le projet procède à une analyse du contenu des documents adoptés au sein des Nations Unies en matière de consolidation de la paix et à une étude approfondie de six cas, à savoir les missions de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies en République centrafricaine et au Mali, les missions de médiation en Syrie et au Yémen, et les missions de soutien politique des Nations Unies en Libye et en Afghanistan.

Contexte scientifique et sociétal

Le projet développe une théorie sur la façon dont la politique mondiale influence la consolidation de la paix et contribue ainsi de manière significative aux disciplines de la recherche sur la paix et des relations internationales (RI). En offrant une perspective globale de la consolidation de la paix, elle contribue en fin de compte à rendre cette dernière plus efficace dans le traitement des conflits contemporains.

 

 

 

 

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 08.10.2019

Lay Summary (Italian)

Lead
Un figlio del proprio tempo: l'impatto della politica mondiale sulla costruzione della paceIl peacebuilding delle Nazioni Unite si trova a uno spartiacque, illustrato dalla sua incapacità di affrontare adeguatamente i conflitti contemporanei, come quelli occorsi in Libia, Siria e Yemen. Negli anni immediatamente successivi alla fine della guerra fredda, nella comunità internazionale vi fu un consenso sul fatto che le operazioni di pace dovessero affrontare le cause profonde dei conflitti e, quindi, avere ampi mandati, inclusa la costruzione di uno stato liberale. Negli ultimi anni, questo consenso è scemato e diversi approcci al peacebuilding concorrono.
Lay summary

Oggetto e finalità del progetto di ricerca   

Questa svolta nel peacebuilding delle Nazioni Unite può essere compresa come parte di cambiamenti più ampi nella politica mondiale. La crescente influenza della Russia e della Cina, nonché di altre potenze emergenti, come il Brasile, l'India e la Turchia, sfida il predominio internazionale degli Stati Uniti. Il progetto proposto indaga su come questo passaggio da un ordine mondiale unipolare a uno multipolare influenza il peacebuilding delle Nazioni Unite. Al fine di analizzare i cambiamenti occorsi viene elaborata una banca dati sulle missioni di pace delle Nazioni Unite dalla fine della guerra fredda ai giorni nostri. Il progetto conduce inoltre una ricerca approfondita del legame tra la politica mondiale e le missioni di pace analizzando i contenuti dei documenti delle Nazioni Unite riguardanti il peacebuilding e approfondendo sei casi studio, in particolare le missioni di peacekeeping nella Repubblica Centrafricana e in Mali, le missioni di mediazione in Siria e Yemen e le missioni di assistenza politica in Libia e Afghanistan.

Contesto socio-scientifico

Il progetto sviluppa una teoria su come la politica mondiale influenza il peacebuilding, dando così un contributo alle discipline delle relazioni internazionali e della ricerca sulla pace. Fornendo una macro-prospettiva sul peacebuilding, contribuisce a rendere quest’ultimo più efficace ad affrontare i conflitti contemporanei.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 08.10.2019

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Abstract

World politics are changing. The unipolar system characterized by US preeminence is waning and new actors exert power in international matters. This has led to increased geopolitical competition and a fading of the enthusiasm about liberalism that accompanied the end of the Cold War. These developments influence peacebuilding. Failures to adequately address armed conflicts such as in Libya, Yemen and Syria point to the need to rethink current approaches to building peace. Yet peacebuilding scholars have not yet integrated the impact of the changing international environment in their thinking. This is due to two reasons. First, the peacebuilding literature has been marginalized in the broader field of International Relations (IR). Second, authors have focused on the inner workings of peacebuilding, often ignoring macro-level processes that influence it.The proposed project fills this gap. Applying IR approaches to peacebuilding in an eclectic analytical framework, it develops a mid-level theory to understand how the shift from a unipolar to a multipolar world order influences United Nations (UN) peacebuilding. I conceptualize the shift towards multipolarity as empirically manifested in increased geopolitical competition and a crumbling of the liberal normative order. I assess how these changes influence the conception and execution of UN peace missions. To do so, I analyze the ways powerful states conceptualize security, sovereignty and institutions as intervening mechanism between world politics and peacebuilding.Methodologically, and reflecting the eclectic approach, the project combines large-N and small-N approaches in a four-part framework. First, it establishes a dataset on UN peace mission mandates to compare their conception and execution from the early post-Cold War period to recent years. Second, it conducts qualitative content analysis of official statements by powerful states to analyze how their conceptualizations of security, sovereignty and institutions changed over time. Third, it studies six cases of UN peace missions (Central African Republic (CAR), Mali, Syria, Yemen, Libya and Afghanistan) through in-depth process tracing of the hypothesized causal mechanism between multipolarity and UN peacebuilding. Lastly, it conducts a cross-case analysis to finalize the mid-level theory.The overall scientific relevance of the project lies in its development of a mid-level theory on how the shift from unipolarity to multipolarity influences UN peacebuilding. Thereby, the project makes two general contributions to science. First, by applying IR theories to peacebuilding, it contributes to countering the marginalization of the peacebuilding literature in IR and underlines IR’s original practice-oriented purpose. Second, by analyzing the world-political factors that constrain or promote peacebuilding, it complements the literature on peacebuilding effectiveness. Moreover, the project makes specific theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions. Theoretically, it contributes to the debates in IR about rising powers and the (re-)conceptualization of security, sovereignty and institutions. Methodologically, by using an eclectic approach and combining large-N and small-N methods, it contributes to a recent trend in IR to draw on different research traditions and adds insights about mixed-methods research designs. Empirically, it provides important data and knowledge on contemporary peacebuilding by producing a publically available dataset on UN peace missions, assessing powerful states’ conceptualizations of security, sovereignty and institutions and analyzing six cases in-depth.The project’s findings will be disseminated in eight peer-reviewed articles in high-ranking journals (two open access), one edited special issue, presentations at ten scientific conferences, one PhD dissertation and the main applicant’s teaching. Moreover, a project website will be established, a policy paper on each case study published and a workshop held to disseminate the findings amongst practitioners. Thereby, the project aims to achieve a broader impact to improve peacebuilding practice.
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