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Mapping the brain networks of the bodily and cognitive self for the prediction of personality deficits following brain surgery

English title Mapping the brain networks of the bodily and cognitive self for the prediction of personality deficits following brain surgery
Applicant Schaller Karl
Number 182497
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Département de Chirurgie Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Neurophysiology and Brain Research
Start/End 01.01.2019 - 31.12.2022
Approved amount 572'000.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Neurophysiology and Brain Research
Surgery

Keywords (6)

fMRI; EEG; intracranial EEG; functional brain mapping; Neurosurgery; self perception

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Untersuchungen der dem physischen und kognitiven Selbst zugrundeliegenden Netzwerke zur Vorhersage von Persönlichkeitsdefiziten in der Folge gehirnchirurgischer Eingriffe Karl Schaller, Olaf Blanke, Christoph Michel
Lay summary
Gehirnoperationen erfordern detaillierte präoperative Analysen und die intraoperative Überwachung von Hirnfunktionen, um das Risiko neurologischer Störungen und einer Verminderung der Lebensqualität zu minimieren. Die meiste Beachtung erfahren hierbei Hirnregionen, die Sprache und Motorik kontrollieren. Allerdings können auch höhere kognitive Hirnleistungen, die beispielsweise sozialem Funktionieren, der Persönlichkeit oder auch der Selbstwahrnehmung zugrunde liegen durch Hirnoperationen beeinflusst werden. Eine Patientenaufklärung sollte auf klinischen und neurowissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen basieren und das Risiko der Änderung kognitiver Eigenschaften miteinschliessen. Unser Projekt baut auf Beobachtungen auf dass Schädigungen des Inselcortex, des medialen präfrontalen Cortex und der temporo-parietalen Übergangsregion mit Problemen autonomer Regulation und der Eigenwahrnehmung einhergehen. Wir werden bei gesunden Probanden, und bei Patienten, die sich epilepsiechirurgischen oder Hirntumor-Operationen unterziehen, das physische und kognitive Selbst untersuchen. Hierzu werden wir hochaufgelöste EEG- und funktionelle MRT-Untersuchungen durchführen, um die diesen Funktionen zugrunde liegenden neuronalen Netzwerke zu erkennen. Hierbei wird auch die Rolle der sogenannten herzschlag-evozierten Potentiale (HEP), die mit dem physischen Selbst in Verbindung gebracht werden, analysiert. Patienten werden vor, während und nach Operationen untersucht, um die kausalen Zusammenhänge zwischen der Resektion bestimmter Hirnareale und Störungen der kognitiven Leistungen und des Verhaltens zu erkennen. Zudem werden wir die dem physischen und dem kognitiven Selbst zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen darstellen und untersuchen, inwieweit diese zur Eigenwahrnehmung interagieren.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 05.12.2018

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

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Publications

Publication
Coupling Inner and Outer Body for Self-Consciousness
Blanke OPark HD (2019), Coupling Inner and Outer Body for Self-Consciousness, in Trends. Cogn.Trends Cogn Sci. , 23(5), 377-388.

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
146633 Non-invasive analysis of language network connectivity by EEG, fMRI, and DTI for the planning of brain surgery 01.10.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
122073 Localization of functionally vital cortex in the individual patient: correlation between invasive and non-invasive methods 01.12.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions in candidates for brain surgery are usually assessed during preoperative neuropsychological testing, or during intra-operative monitoring under general anesthesia and has proven instrumental to minimize surgery-induced damage and loss of function. The proposed project builds on the expertise gained in two preceding FNS-funded projects carried out jointly by neurosurgeons, neurologists and neurophysiologists, where we have embarked on the improvement of the spatio-anatomical accuracy of presurgical functional brain mapping, as compared to the gold standard of electrocortical stimluation. We designed the current project on recent research findings and clinical observations suggesting that damage of the insular cortex leads both to autonomous dysfunctions (e.g., changes in heart rate variability, intermittent tachycardia, hyperventilation) and to alterations of the sense of self (e.g., changes in personality and or self-identification). Moreover, insular patients typically report post-surgical psychological side effects, including mood changes or lack of stress resistance, which may relate to alterations in the sense of self and which often have important consequences in their daily life (e.g., divorce, professional changes). Recent neuroscience research has revealed two main forms of self, a bodily self and a cognitive self. Whereas the latter is based on different cognitive systems such as language, memory, and mental imagery, the former is based on bodily signals including interoceptive and exteroceptive information. However, it is currently unknown whether the abovementioned post-surgical mental changes relate to the bodily or cognitive self or to both. Investigating the bodily self and the cognitive self and their dependence on interoceptive cues as mediated by insular cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and temporo-parietal junction (that all have been linked to self-related processing), we propose to study the brain mechanisms of the bodily and cognitive self and their dependence on exteroceptive-interoceptive signals in neurosurgery patients undergoing resection of brain tumors or epileptic foci within the abovementioned areas. The patients shall be recorded with high-density (256 channel) EEG and ECG before and after surgery in two tasks (bodily self and cognitive self). The cognitive self task (hearing own or stranger voice) will also be applied perioperatively under anesthesia while signals from intracranial electrodes will be recorded. In addition, control subjects will perform the same task in a separate EEG and fMRI session. In brief, our project aims to investigate the causal impact of neurosurgical removal of cortical areas in diverse aspects of self-consciousness by conducting and comparing behavioral, neural, and neuropsychological assessments pre and post operatively. This project will have important implications both for clinical and fundamental human neuroscience.
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