Police; Métiers relationnels; Classes et trajectoires sociales; Parcours de vie; Genre; Soins infirmiers; Socialisation; Dispositions politiques
Pichonnaz David (2021), Connecting Work To Workers’ Social Past: A Dispositional Analysis of Police Work, in The British Journal of Criminology
, 61(1), 123-142.
PichonnazDavid (2020), Politiques et pratiques policières, in Maeder Pascal, Bonvin Jean-Michel, Knöpfel Carlo, Tecklenburg Ueli, Hugentobler Valérie (ed.), Seismo, Geneva/Zurich, 407-409.
Pichonnaz David (2020), Valeurs, outils et finalités en tensions. Analyser les désaccords dans les métiers relationnels du service public, in Kuehni Morgane (ed.), Schwabe / Les cahiers de l’ÉÉSP, Fribourg/Lausanne, 97-115.
The provision of security and healthcare are fundamental collective issues intensely regulated by the State. However, they remain object of constant political debate: Should fostering security and health rely mainly on preventive measures? To what extent should the specific needs and resources of patients, offenders and other member of the communities be taken into account by police officers and nurses? Should these professionals avoid discriminating certain categories of “clients” and how? What is the right balance between empathy and emotional distance? Should relational skills be allocated a greater importance than technical ones? Public policies give official answers to these questions and, together with professional associations, set rules to guide police officers and nurses’ practices. Nevertheless, because these professionals deal with human beings and complex problematics, there are considerable variations in the ways they answer these questions when accomplishing their tasks. In particular, contrasted profiles of workers result in contrasted ways of responding to the tensions opposing coercively imposed standardized solutions to “clients” and taking into account their singularities and autonomy, and more broadly various ways of treating the different categories of “clients”. Concentrating on professionals’ perspectives, the objectives of this project are twofold. Firstly, to provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of relational work and of the variable ways professionals respond to it. Secondly, to make a step further by explaining these variations in how work is perceived and performed, by looking at the experiences professionals have made and the contexts they have been involved in before they joined their occupation.Applying Lahire’s “dispositional analysis” and Darmon’s socialisation analysis model to the study of working practices, this project will investigate three major contexts which are assumed to have a substantial influence on police officers’ and nurses’ visions and practices of their work: social class and family socialisation, gender socialisation, and social mobility patterns. Attention will be paid in particular to the political dispositions (i.e. the worldviews) professionals have interiorized along their life paths, as they are assumed to deeply underlie professional practices and choices. These dispositions and skills acquired before joining the profession are considered as shaping how professionals react to constraints and rules of the organizations they work in. They can in particular lead them (consciously or not) to resist to “orthodox” way of performing work.This project draws on in-depth biographical interviews conducted with British police officers and Swiss nurses. The theoretical foundations and the methodological choices of this qualitative research will enable a fine understanding of socialisation by looking in details at individual life paths, avoiding the overdeterministic bias of classical social-class analysis.