Project

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Forest under Stress: Understanding how Species interact and adjust to Climate Change

Applicant Grossiord Charlotte
Number 174068
Funding scheme Ambizione
Research institution Swiss Federal Research Inst. WSL Direktion
Institution of higher education Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research - WSL
Main discipline Ecology
Start/End 01.07.2018 - 30.06.2022
Approved amount 822'856.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Ecology
Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
Environmental Research

Keywords (12)

biodiversity; plasticity; drought; acclimation; species interactions; climate change; complementarity; ecology; forest; warming; facilitation; resistance

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Wälder im Klimastress: wie Biodiversität und Akklimatisierung von Baumarten die Ökosystemleistungen von Wäldern in einer trockeneren und wärmeren Welt beeinflussen Klimamodelle prognostizieren eine Erderwärmung zwischen 1,1 und 6,4°C bis zum Jahre 2100. Gleichzeitig wird sich das Niederschlagregime verändern und Starkniederschläge und Dürren im Wechsel werden vermehrt auftreten. Diese Entwicklung hat auch zur Folge, dass in Zukunft Dürren bei höheren Temperaturen auftreten werden. Wälder bedecken etwa 30% der Erdoberfläche und bieten viele Ökosystemleistungen, wie zum Beispiel die Sicherung der Trinkwasserversorgung und sie haben eine zentrale Funtion als Kohlenstoffsenke. Der Klimawandel wird voraussichtlich den Kohlenstoff-, Wasser- und Nährstoffaustausch zwischen Waldökosystemen und ihrer Umwelt deutlich verändern. Doch ob und wie ein wärmeres und trockeneres Klima Waldökosysteme beeinträchtigt ist nicht vollständig geklärt.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziele des Forschungsprojekts

Ein wichtiger Punkt, der bisher nicht ausreichend verstanden ist, bezieht sich auch das Akllimatisierungspotential der Bäume. Akklimatisierung bedeutet, die Anpassung an bestimmte neue Bedingungen innerhalb der Lebenspanne – die bei Bäumen ja sehr lang ist - eines Individuums. Wichtige offen Fragen sind: Wie können sich Bäume sich an langfristige klimatische Veränderungen akklimatisieren und wie beeinflussen Interaktionen zwischen Baumarten und damit die Biodiversität in Wäldern dieses Akklimatisierungspotential. Um die Bedeutung dieser Prozesse zu entschlüsseln, müssen wir die Mechanismen der Akklimatisierung und der Baumarteninteraktionen verstehen. Unsere Ziele sind daher, die physiologischen Schlüsselprozesse zu identifizieren, die es Bäumen erlauben sich an veränderte Klimabedingungen anzupassen oder aber die eine solche Anpassung verhindern, sowie die veränderte Interaktion zwischen Baumarten bei Hitze und Trockenheit zu charakterisieren. Schließlich werden wir die Folgen dieser Prozesse und Interaktionen auf die Ökosystemleistungen des Waldes analysieren. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, wird ein multidisziplinärer und multiskaliger Ansatz mit einer Kombination von experimentellen Untersuchungen und Monitoring Analysen eingesetzt, der vom einzelnen Baum bis zum kontinentalen Maßstab reicht.

 

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Ergebnisse aus dieser Forschung können als Prädiktoren für die Ökosystemleistungen Schweizer und Europäischer Wälder im Klimawandel genutzt werden. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit, können direkt von Forstverwaltungen und anderen nationalen und internationalen Stakeholdern genutzt werden um die Ökosystemleistungen und Biodiversität von Wäldern nachhaltig zu nutzen und zu optimieren.

 

Keywords

Biodiversität, Akklimatisierung, Klimawandel, Arten-Interaktion, Wald, Erwärmung
  
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 23.08.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Controls of the hydraulic safety–efficiency trade-off
Grossiord Charlotte, Ulrich Danielle E M, Vilagrosa Alberto (2020), Controls of the hydraulic safety–efficiency trade-off, in Tree Physiology, 40(5), 573-576.
Conifers depend on established roots during drought: results from a coupled model of carbon allocation and hydraulics
Mackay D. Scott, Savoy Philip R., Grossiord Charlotte, Tai Xiaonan, Pleban Jonathan R., Wang Diane R., McDowell Nathan G., Adams Henry D., Sperry John S. (2020), Conifers depend on established roots during drought: results from a coupled model of carbon allocation and hydraulics, in New Phytologist, 225(2), 679-692.
Pervasive shifts in forest dynamics in a changing world
McDowell Nate G., Allen Craig D., Anderson-Teixeira Kristina, Aukema Brian H., Bond-Lamberty Ben, Chini Louise, Clark James S., Dietze Michael, Grossiord Charlotte, Hanbury-Brown Adam, Hurtt George C., Jackson Robert B., Johnson Daniel J., Kueppers Lara, Lichstein Jeremy W., Ogle Kiona, Poulter Benjamin, Pugh Thomas A. M., Seidl Rupert, Turner Monica G., Uriarte Maria, Walker Anthony P., Xu Chonggang (2020), Pervasive shifts in forest dynamics in a changing world, in Science, 1.
Plant responses to rising vapor pressure deficit
Grossiord Charlotte, Buckley Thomas N., Cernusak Lucas A., Novick Kimberly A., Poulter Benjamin, Siegwolf Rolf T. W., Sperry John S., McDowell Nate G. (2020), Plant responses to rising vapor pressure deficit, in New Phytologist, 1.
The response of stomatal conductance to seasonal drought in tropical forests
Wu Jin, Serbin Shawn P., Ely Kim S., Wolfe Brett T., Dickman L. Turin, Grossiord Charlotte, Michaletz Sean T., Collins Adam D., Detto Matteo, McDowell Nate G., Wright S. Joseph, Rogers Alistair (2020), The response of stomatal conductance to seasonal drought in tropical forests, in Global Change Biology, 26(2), 823-839.
Coordinating supply and demand: plant carbon allocation strategy ensuring survival in the long run
Gessler Arthur, Grossiord Charlotte (2019), Coordinating supply and demand: plant carbon allocation strategy ensuring survival in the long run, in New Phytologist, 222(1), 5-7.
Having the right neighbors: how tree species diversity modulates drought impacts on forests
Grossiord Charlotte (2019), Having the right neighbors: how tree species diversity modulates drought impacts on forests, in New Phytologist, 1.
Mechanisms of a coniferous woodland persistence under drought and heat
Nate G.McDowell, CharlotteGrossiord, Henry D.Adams, SaraPinzón-Navarro, D. Scott Mackay, David D.Breshears, Craig D.Allen, L. TurinDickman, Adam Collins, MonicaGaylord, NatalieMcBranch, William T.Pockman, AlbertoVilagrosa, BrianAukema, DevinGoodsman, ChonggangXu (2019), Mechanisms of a coniferous woodland persistence under drought and heat, in Environmental Research Letters, 14(4), 1.
Precipitation mediates sap flux sensitivity to evaporative demand in the neotropics
Grossiord Charlotte, Christoffersen Bradley, Alonso-Rodríguez Aura M., Anderson-Teixeira Kristina, Asbjornsen Heidi, Aparecido Luiza Maria T., Berry Z. Carter, Baraloto Christopher, Bonal Damien, Borrego Isaac, Burban Benoit, Chambers Jeffrey Q., Christianson Danielle S., Detto Matteo, Faybishenko Boris, Fontes Clarissa G., Fortunel Claire, Gimenez Bruno O., Jardine Kolby J., Kueppers Lara, Miller Gretchen R., Moore Georgianne W., Negron-Juarez Robinson, Stahl Clément, Swenson Nathan G., Trotsiuk Volodymyr, Varadharajan Charu, Warren Jeffrey M., Wolfe Brett T., Wei Liang, Wood Tana E., Xu Chonggang, McDowell Nate G. (2019), Precipitation mediates sap flux sensitivity to evaporative demand in the neotropics, in Oecologia, 191(3), 519-530.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Forest Dynamics/ WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Institute of Plant Sciences/Universität Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Center for Functional and Evolutive Ecology/ CNRS Montpellier France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
James Cook University/Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science Australia (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Watershed & Ecosystem Science/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
ETH Zurich, Department of Environmental Systems Sciences Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Fundación CEAM. Joint Research Unit University of Alicante - CEAM Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Forest Ecology and Ecophysiology/INRA Nancy France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Earth and Environmental Sciences Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EGU Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Precipitation mediates transpiration sensitivity to evaporative demand in the neotropics 08.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Grossiord Charlotte;
Ecology Seminars University of Basel Individual talk Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing climate. 04.03.2019 Basel, Switzerland Grossiord Charlotte;
ESA Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Warming and drought modify belowground interactions for water among coexisting plants. 13.08.2018 New Orleans, United States of America Grossiord Charlotte;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
World Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO): Management options to increase the drought tolerance of forests 16.09.2019 Curitiba, Brazil
Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (Gfö): Physiological plant ecology in a complex and changing world 09.09.2019 Münster, Germany
EGU Organized Session: Forests under stress: improving our understanding on how trees respond and adjust to a drier and warmer climate 08.04.2019 Vienna, Austria

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Interpretive tour of the WSL Model Ecosystem Facility Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 16.04.2019 Birmensdorf, Switzerland Grossiord Charlotte; Didion-Gency Margaux;


Abstract

Climate change models predict an increase in atmospheric temperatures between 1.1 and 6.4°C by 2100. Simultaneously, precipitation extremes are expected to be maintained or accentuated, thus future droughts will be superimposed upon warmer conditions. Forests cover about 30% of the Earth’s surface and provide many services including being a major carbon sink. Climate change is expected to significantly alter carbon, water and nutrients exchanges between forest ecosystems and the environment. However predictions on how a warmer and drier climate will affect forest ecosystems are challenged by important lacks in mechanistic understanding of tree species community dynamics. Particularly recognized processes that could influence forest responses to climate change, but that are largely misunderstood, are how trees acclimate to long-term shifts in climate, and how the interactions among tree species in natural conditions influence this acclimation potential. To unravel the significance of tree adjustments and interactions in a drying and warming world, the next step is to understand the mechanisms of acclimation and species interactions and relate them to global-scale patterns in natural conditions. Our objectives are thus to assess the physiological processes by which trees adjust and interact among each other under a changing climate, determine the consequences of these processes on forest responses to climatic stresses and improve our understanding of these effects on forests functioning at a large comprehensive scale. To reach these objectives, a multidisciplinary and multiscale approach using experimental and observational analyses will be employed going from the individual tree to the continental scale. The project will use unique greenhouse facilities of the host institution, field-based experiments along environmental gradients and large databases of observational networks spanning across Europe. This work will use methods and theories from the fields of ecology, physiology, biogeochemistry and hydrology. Outcome from this research will provide predictors of forest responses to calibrate and validate the next generation of climate-vegetation models. Additionally, the mechanistic framework gained from this work will help local foresters and international agencies to develop climate-smart management and species conservation options.
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