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Spin-orbitronics in ferromagnets and antiferromagnets

English title Spin-orbitronics in ferromagnets and antiferromagnets
Applicant Gambardella Pietro
Number 172775
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Departement Materialwissenschaft ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Condensed Matter Physics
Start/End 01.06.2017 - 31.05.2021
Approved amount 1'084'210.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Condensed Matter Physics
Material Sciences

Keywords (4)

Magnetism; Spintronics; spin-orbit coupling; magnetic random access memory

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Moderne Computertechnologie basiert auf der Fähigkeit, digitale Information möglichst effizient zu schreiben, speichern und abzurufen. Nicht-flüchtige digitale Speicher verwenden die Richtung der Magnetisierung als Informationsträger. Dieses Projekt untersucht sowohl neuartige Materialien und Methoden, um schnelles und energieeffizientes Schalten von nichtflüchtigen magnetischen Speichern zu erreichen, als auch neuartige Magnetowiderstände, die das Auslesen der Magnetisierung in elektrischen Strukturen erlauben.
Lay summary

Unser Hauptziel ist das Ergründen und Verstehen von spintronischen und Spin-Bahn-Effekten in Dünnfilmen, die die Umwandlung eines elektrischen Stromes in einen Spinstrom erlauben. Wir haben in diesem Zusammenhang kürzlich zeigen können, dass solch eine Umwandlung zu einer stromgesteuerten Magnetisierungsumkehr in einer umfangreichen Klasse von zwei- und dreipoligen Strukturen führt. Darauf aufbauend wollen wir diesen Prozess schneller und effizienter gestalten, indem neue Materialklassen untersucht werden, bei denen die Spin-Bahn-Wechselwirkung besonders stark ist. Dazu zählen Schwermetalle, topologische Isolatoren und Antiferromagneten. Darüber hinaus planen wir für diese Systeme die Untersuchung des kürzlich entdeckten unidirektionalen Magnetowiderstands, bei dem der elektrische Widerstand auf ungewöhnliche Weise von der Ausrichtung der Magnetisierung abhängt. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, werden wir eine Kombination von optischen, Röntgen- und Magnetotransportmethoden entwickeln, die uns einen beispiellosen Einblick in die Umwandlung von Ladung und Spin sowie in das ultraschnelle Schalten der Magnetisierung erlaubt.

Die Ergebnisse dieses Projektes werden von direktem Interesse für das Design von elektrisch ansteuerbaren nichtflüchtigen magnetischen Speichern sein, insbesondere im Hinblick auf schnelles Schaltvermögen und geringen Energieverbrauch. Weiterhin sind sie unmittelbar relevant für die Realisierung neuartiger Anordnungen zum Auslesen der Magnetisierung mittels Magnetowiderstand.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 31.05.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Current-driven magnetic domain-wall logic
Luo Z. C., Hrabec A., Dao T. P., Sala G., Finizio S., Feng J. X., Mayr S., Raabe J., Gambardella P., Heyderman L. J. (2020), Current-driven magnetic domain-wall logic, in Nature, 579(7798), 214-214.
Effects of Oxidation of Top and Bottom Interfaces on the Electric, Magnetic, and Spin-Orbit Torque Properties of Pt/Co/AlOx Trilayers
etal, Feng Junxiao (2020), Effects of Oxidation of Top and Bottom Interfaces on the Electric, Magnetic, and Spin-Orbit Torque Properties of Pt/Co/AlOx Trilayers, in Phys. Rev. Appl., 13, 044029.
Single-atom electron paramagnetic resonance in a scanning tunneling microscope driven by a radio-frequency antenna at 4 K
Seifert T. S., Kovarik S., Nistor C., Persichetti L., Stepanow S., Gambardella P. (2020), Single-atom electron paramagnetic resonance in a scanning tunneling microscope driven by a radio-frequency antenna at 4 K, in Physical Review Research, 2(1), 013032-013032.
Single-shot dynamics of spin-orbit torque and spin transfer torque switching in three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions
Grimaldi E., Krizakova V., Sala G., Yasin F., Couet S., Kar G. S., Garello K., Gambardella P. (2020), Single-shot dynamics of spin-orbit torque and spin transfer torque switching in three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions, in Nature Nanotechnology, 111-111.
Chiral Domain Wall Injector Driven by Spin-Orbit Torques
Dao T. P., Muller M., Luo Z. C., Baumgartner M., Hrabec A., Heyderman L. J., Gambardella P. (2019), Chiral Domain Wall Injector Driven by Spin-Orbit Torques, in Nano Letters, 19(9), 5930-5937.
Chirally coupled nanomagnets
Luo Z. C., Dao T. P., Hrabec A., Vijayakumar J., Kleibert A., Baumgartner M., Kirk E., Cui J. Z., Savchenko T., Krishnaswamy G., Heyderman L. J., Gambardella P. (2019), Chirally coupled nanomagnets, in Science, 363(6434), 1435-1435.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon A., Zelezny J., Miron I. M., Jungwirth T., Sinova J., Thiaville A., Garello K., Gambardella P. (2019), Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, in Reviews of Modern Physics, 91(3), 035004-035004.
Current-induced switching of YIG/Pt bilayers with in-plane magnetization due to Oersted fields
Mendil J., Trassin M., Bu Q. Q., Fiebig M., Gambardella P. (2019), Current-induced switching of YIG/Pt bilayers with in-plane magnetization due to Oersted fields, in Applied Physics Letters, 114(17), 172404-172404.
Effects of transition metal spacers on spin-orbit torques, spin Hall magnetoresistance, and magnetic anisotropy of Pt/Co bilayers
Avci Can Onur, Beach Geoffrey S. D., Gambardella Pietro (2019), Effects of transition metal spacers on spin-orbit torques, spin Hall magnetoresistance, and magnetic anisotropy of Pt/Co bilayers, in Physical Review B, 100(23), 235454-235454.
High-speed domain wall racetracks in a magnetic insulator
Velez S., Schaab J., Wornle M. S., Muller M., Gradauskaite E., Welter P., Gutgsell C., Nistor C., Degen C. L., Trassin M., Fiebig M., Gambardella P. (2019), High-speed domain wall racetracks in a magnetic insulator, in Nature Communications, 10, 4750.
Magnetic properties and domain structure of ultrathin yttrium iron garnet/Pt bilayers
Mendil J., Trassin M., Bu Q., Schaab J., Baumgartner M., Murer C., Dao P. T., Vijayakumar J., Bracher D., Bouillet C., Vaz C. A. F., Fiebig M., Gambardella P. (2019), Magnetic properties and domain structure of ultrathin yttrium iron garnet/Pt bilayers, in Physical Review Materials, 3(3), 034403-034403.
X-ray spectroscopy of current-induced spin-orbit torques and spin accumulation in Pt/3d-transition-metal bilayers
Stamm C., Murer C., Acremann Y., Baumgartner M., Gort R., Daster S., Kleibert A., Garello K., Feng J., Gabureac M., Chen Z., Stohr J., Gambardella P. (2019), X-ray spectroscopy of current-induced spin-orbit torques and spin accumulation in Pt/3d-transition-metal bilayers, in Physical Review B, 100(2), 024426-024426.
Asymmetric velocity and tilt angle of domain walls induced by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner M., Gambardella P. (2018), Asymmetric velocity and tilt angle of domain walls induced by spin-orbit torques, in Applied Physics Letters, 113(24), 242402-242402.
Chiral anisotropic magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic helices
Maurenbrecher H., Mendil J., Chatzipirpiridis G., Mattmann M., Pane S., Nelson B. J., Gambardella P. (2018), Chiral anisotropic magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic helices, in Applied Physics Letters, 112(24), 242401-242401.
Magnetism and spin transport in rare-earth-rich epitaxial terbium and europium iron garnet films
Rosenberg E. R., Beran L., Avci C. O., Zeledon C., Song B. Q., Gonzalez-Fuentes C., Mendil J., Gambardella P., Veis M., Garcia C., Beach G. S. D., Ross C. A. (2018), Magnetism and spin transport in rare-earth-rich epitaxial terbium and europium iron garnet films, in Physical Review Materials, 2(9), 094405-094405.
Origins of the Unidirectional Spin Hall Magnetoresistance in Metallic Bilayers
Avci C. O., Mendil J., Beach G. S. D., Gambardella P. (2018), Origins of the Unidirectional Spin Hall Magnetoresistance in Metallic Bilayers, in Phys Rev Lett, 121(8), 087207-087207.
SOT-MRAM 300MM Integration for Low Power and Ultrafast Embedded Memories
Garello K., Yasin F., Couet S., Souriau L., Swerts J., Rao S., Beek S. Van, Kim W., Liu E., Kundu S., Tsvetanova D., Croes K., Jossart N., Grimaldi E., Baumgartner M., Crotti D., Fumémont A., Gambardella P., Kar G. S. (2018), SOT-MRAM 300MM Integration for Low Power and Ultrafast Embedded Memories, in 2018 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, 81-82.
Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory
Olejnik K., Seifert T., Kaspar Z., Novak V., Wadley P., Campion R. P., Baumgartner M., Gambardella P., Nemec P., Wunderlich J., Sinova J., Kuzel P., Muller M., Kampfrath T., Jungwirth T. (2018), Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory, in Science Advances, 4(3), 3566-3566.
Ultra-Fast Perpendicular Spin-Orbit Torque MRAM
Cubukcu M., Boulle O., Mikuszeit N., Hamelin C., Bracher T., Lamard N., Cyrille M. C., Buda-Prejbeanu L., Garello K., Miron I. M., Klein O., de Loubens G., Naletov V. V., Langer J., Ocker B., Gambardella P., Gaudin G. (2018), Ultra-Fast Perpendicular Spin-Orbit Torque MRAM, in Ieee Transactions on Magnetics, 54(4), 9300204-9300204.
A multi-state memory device based on the unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance
Avci C. O., Mann M., Tan A. J., Gambardella P., Beach G. S. D. (2017), A multi-state memory device based on the unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance, in Applied Physics Letters, 110(20), 203506-203506.
Antiferromagnetic CuMnAs multi-level memory cell with microelectronic compatibility
Olejnik K., Schuler V., Marti X., Novak V., Kaspar Z., Wadley P., Campion R. P., Edmonds K. W., Gallagher B. L., Garces J., Baumgartner M., Gambardella P., Jungwirth T. (2017), Antiferromagnetic CuMnAs multi-level memory cell with microelectronic compatibility, in Nature Communications, 8, 15434-15434.
Co-sputtered PtMnSb thin films and PtMnSb/Pt bilayers for spin-orbit torque investigations
Krieft J., Mendil J., Aguirre M. H., Avci C. O., Klewe C., Rott K., Schmalhorst J. M., Reiss G., Gambardella P., Kuschel T. (2017), Co-sputtered PtMnSb thin films and PtMnSb/Pt bilayers for spin-orbit torque investigations, in Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters, 11(4), 1600439-1600439.
Fast switching and signature of efficient domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques in a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator/Pt bilayer
Avci C. O., Rosenberg E., Baumgartner M., Beran L., Quindeau A., Gambardella P., Ross C. A., Beach G. S. D. (2017), Fast switching and signature of efficient domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques in a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator/Pt bilayer, in Applied Physics Letters, 111(7), 072406-072406.
Magneto-Optical Detection of the Spin Hall Effect in Pt and W Thin Films
Stamm C., Murer C., Berritta M., Feng J., Gabureac M., Oppeneer P. M., Gambardella P. (2017), Magneto-Optical Detection of the Spin Hall Effect in Pt and W Thin Films, in Physical Review Letters, 119(8), 087203-087203.
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner M., Garello K., Mendil J., Avci C. O., Grimaldi E., Murer C., Feng J. X., Gabureac M., Stamm C., Acremann Y., Finizio S., Wintz S., Raabe J., Gambardella P. (2017), Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques, in Nature Nanotechnology, 12(10), 980-986.
Spin currents during ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnetic bilayers
Eschenlohr A., Persichetti L., Kachel T., Gabureac M., Gambardella P., Stamm C. (2017), Spin currents during ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnetic bilayers, in Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 29(38), 384002-384002.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. K. Garello, Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre, Leuwen, Belgium Belgium (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Prof. C. Degen/ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. M. Fiebig/ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. L.J. Heyderman/Paul Scherrer Institut Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
MRS Fall Meeting Talk given at a conference Current induced fragmentation of antiferromagnetic domains 02.12.2019 Boston, United States of America Wörnle Martin;
Antiferromagnetic Spintronics Talk given at a conference Current induced fragmentation of antiferromagnetic domains 07.10.2019 Mainz, Germany Wörnle Martin;
International Conference on Solid Films and surfaces Talk given at a conference Current-induced dynamics in spintronic devices probed by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy 06.10.2019 Hiroshima, Japan Sala Giacomo;
SPICE Workshop on Antiferromagnetic Talk given at a conference Imaging the domain pattern of in-plane layered antiferromagnets using diamond magnetomerty 06.10.2019 Mainz, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
Lana Meeting Prag Individual talk Current induced fragmentation of antiferromagnetic domains 26.08.2019 Prag, Czech Republic Wörnle Martin;
Joint European Magnetic Symposia Talk given at a conference Element-resolved current-induced magnetization dynamics in ferrimagnetic alloys 25.08.2019 Uppsala, Sweden Sala Giacomo;
Gordon Research Conference Spin Dynamics in Nanostructures Talk given at a conference Origins of unidirectional magnetoresistance in planar and chiral structures 07.07.2019 Les Diablerets, Switzerland Gambardella Pietro;
10th International Symposium on Metallic Multilayers (MML 2019( Talk given at a conference Chiral coupling of nanomag 17.06.2019 Madrid, Spain Gambardella Pietro;
Physics Colloquium Individual talk The new spintronics: switching, sensing, and coupling nanomagnets enabled by the spin-orbit interaction 03.06.2019 Rom, Italy Gambardella Pietro;
Physics Colloquium Individual talk New ways to switch, sense, and couple nanomagnets enabled by spin-orbit coupling 02.05.2019 Münster, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
Zurich Instruments User Meeting Individual talk Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by electric currents 24.04.2019 Zürich, Switzerland Gambardella Pietro;
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Spring Meeting Talk given at a conference Chiral magnetoresistance in curved and noncurved geometries 01.04.2019 Regensburg, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
Workshop on Frontiers in artificial spin ice Talk given at a conference Spatially-resolved measurements of domain wall motion and magnetization switching induced by spin 06.02.2019 Bad Zurzach, Switzerland Gambardella Pietro;
Magnet 2019 Talk given at a conference Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit tourques 30.01.2019 Messina, Italy Gambardella Pietro;
16th RIEC International Workshop on spintronics Talk given at a conference Spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit torques 09.01.2019 Sendai, Japan Gambardella Pietro;
International Conference on Complex and Functional Material Talk given at a conference Charge-spin conversion and magnetization switching in spin-orbit coupled system 13.12.2018 Kalkuta, India Gambardella Pietro;
International Conference on Magnetic Materials and Applications Talk given at a conference Charge-spin conversion and magnetization switching in spin-orbit coupled systems 09.12.2018 Bhubaneswar, India Gambardella Pietro;
KITS workshop on collective spin dynamics in nanostructur Talk given at a conference Nonreciprocal electric transport and charge-spin conversion in ferromagnetic/heavy metal layers 01.10.2018 Beijing, China Gambardella Pietro;
JEMS 2018 Talk given at a conference Spin-orbit torque induced domain switching in antiferromagnet / ferromagnet heterostructures 03.09.2018 Mainz, Germany Krishnaswamy Gunasheel Kauwtilyaa;
9th JEMS Conference (Joint European Magnetic Symposia) Talk given at a conference MRAM to the new era of spintronics 03.09.2018 Mainz, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
9th JEMS Conference (Joint European Magnetic Symposia) Talk given at a conference Suspended in time and space: temporal and spatial challenges facing spin-orbitronics 03.09.2018 Mainz, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
SPS Annual Meeting 2018 Talk given at a conference Asymmetric domain wall nucleation in DMI coupled in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic wires 28.08.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Dao Trong Phuong;
SPS Annual Meeting 2018 Talk given at a conference Spin-orbit torque induced domain switching in antiferromagnet / ferromagnet heterostructures 28.08.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Krishnaswamy Gunasheel Kauwtilyaa;
SPS Annual Meeting 2018 Poster Field-free switching of Pt/Co/AlOx dots induced by a spatially inhomogeneous electric curren 28.08.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Sala Giacomo;
Spintronics XI Symposium of the SPIE Optics &Photonics Conference Talk given at a conference Magneto-optical measurements of the current-induced spin accumulation in nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic metal system 19.08.2018 San Diego, United States of America Gambardella Pietro;
14th International Workshop on Magnetism &Superconductivity at the Nanoscale Talk given at a conference Single atom magnets on insulating surfaces 02.07.2018 Comaruga, Spain Gambardella Pietro;
Physics Colloquium Individual talk Spin-orbitronics: controlling magnets with electric currents 18.06.2018 Bielefeld, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
SPIN+X.Colloquium Individual talk Spin-orbitronics: controlling magnets with electric currents 24.05.2018 Mainz, Germany Gambardella Pietro;
ICAMD 2017 Talk given at a conference Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torque 05.12.2017 Jeju, Korean Republic (South Korea) Gambardella Pietro;
Department of Materials Science and Engineerin Individual talk Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques 02.12.2017 Seoul, Korean Republic (South Korea) Gambardella Pietro;
EMPA Individual talk Molecular and atomic magnets on surfaces: tune, couple, induce 16.11.2017 Dübendorf, Switzerland Gambardella Pietro;
62nd annual conference on magnetism and magnetic materials (MMM Individual talk Magneto-optical detection of the spin Hall effect in Pt and W thin films 16.11.2017 Pittsburgh, United States of America Baumgartner Manuel; Murer Christoph Philipp;
National Synchrotron Light Source II Colloquium Individual talk From single atom magnets to ultrafast switching Insights from x-ray absorption spectroscopy and microscop 12.10.2017 Brookhaven, United States of America Gambardella Pietro;
Workshop Magnetic nano-object Talk given at a conference Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torque 02.10.2017 Nancy, France Gambardella Pietro;
Workshop Quantum spintronics at interface Talk given at a conference Magneto-Optical Detection of the Spin Hall Effect in Pt and W Thin Film 04.09.2017 Donostia, Spain Gambardella Pietro;
Swiss Physical Society Poster Magneto-optical detection of the spin Hall effect in Pt and W thin film 21.08.2017 Genf, Switzerland Murer Christoph Philipp;
Spintec-CNRS Individual talk Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques 15.06.2017 Grenoble, France Gambardella Pietro;
Spincaloritronics VII Talk given at a conference Time- and spatially-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torque 15.06.2017 Regensburg, Germany Gambardella Pietro;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Minisymposium on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 26.02.2020 ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Materials Day: Materials Today, Tomorrow, and Beyond 18.10.2018 ETH Main building, Switzerland
Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Symposium, SPIE 2018 Spintronics XI 19.08.2018 San Diego, United States of America
QMOL 10.11.2017 Ascona, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media An all-electrical magnetic logic gate that harnesses chirality between domains Nature International 2020
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Tracking spin-orbit torque switching in magnetic tunnel junctions in real time Nature Research Device & Materials Engineering Community International 2020
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Zeitaufgeloeste messung im datenspeicher ETH News German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland 2020
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) A compass pointing west ETH News Western Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Chiral twist in mesoscopic magnetic systems Communications of the Swiss Physical Society Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Magnetic building blocks in two dimensions Science International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Strong chiral coupling of adjacent nanomagnets achieved MRS Bulletin International 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions Tec - Day! Nanomaterials German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions tec Day - Sviluppiamo i materiali del futuro! Italian-speaking Switzerland 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Fast magnetic writing of data ETH news Western Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions Tec Day - Sviluppiamo i materiali del futuro! Italian-speaking Switzerland 2017

Awards

Title Year
Golden Owl Award for Excellence in Teaching, ETH Zurich 2018
Cátedra de Investigación Científica del Instituto de Física, Universidad de San Luis Potosí, Mexico 2017

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
153404 Investigation of current-induced torques in spin-orbit coupled materials 01.06.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Spin-based electronics underlies modern technologies of magnetic storage and sensing. The iconic discoveries of giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torques have expanded the means available to sense and manipulate the magnetization of ferromagnets, leading, among other things, to the implementation of all-electrical magnetic memories integrated with semiconductor electronics. In recent years, fundamental advances in the understanding of relativistic interactions that link the electron’s spin and orbital degrees of freedom have opened tremendous opportunities to enhance the functionality and operation of spintronic devices. The ability to reversibly separate and generate spin currents from charge currents, to harvest orbital angular momentum to induce magnetization reversal, and to employ antiferromagnets as well as magnetic insulators as active spintronic media is deeply transforming our conception of magnetism.The goals of this proposal are two-fold: (1) to explore new materials and concepts that enable efficient charge-spin conversion and manipulation of magnetization dynamics in systems with robust ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic properties, (2) to achieve a consistent description of current-induced spin accumulation, spin torques, and magnetoresistance in single-layer and bilayer conductors characterized by strong spin-orbit coupling. Specifically, we propose strategies to achieve rapid and efficient spin-orbit torque magnetization switching in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers suitable for integration into large-scale memory architectures, and to investigate and optimize the nanoscale magnetization reversal process in the time domain. With the same aim, we propose to study novel material combinations including topological insulator systems, which display the largest charge-spin conversion ratio reported to date, to assess their potential for magnetization switching of ferromagnetic metals. Finally, we plan to combine optical, x-ray, and magnetotransport measurements to achieve a unified picture of current-induced spin accumulation phenomena, spin-orbit torques, and magnetoresistive effects in single-layer and bilayer epitaxial films of relevance for applications in spintronics. Overall, this project will impact the ability to design materials and devices with unprecedented control over the spin degrees of freedom and contribute to the fundamental understanding of charge and spin transport in magnetic and nonmagnetic systems.
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