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iCEP - Climate and Environmental Physics: Innovation in ice core science

English title iCEP - Climate and Environmental Physics: Innovation in ice core science
Applicant Fischer Hubertus
Number 172506
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Klima- und Umweltphysik Physikalisches Institut Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Other disciplines of Physics
Start/End 01.04.2017 - 31.03.2021
Approved amount 1'700'000.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Physics
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences

Keywords (11)

atmospheric composition; paleoclimate; atmospheric circulation; ice cores; biogeochemical cycles; Quaternary; greenhouse gases; aerosol; ocean temperature; Greenland; Antarctica

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Paläoklimatische Studien an Eisbohrkernen liefern einzigartige Informationen zu Änderungen des Klimas und der Atmosphäre der Vergangenheit. Um ein Verständnis der verantwortlichen Prozesse zu erlangen, reicht die Dokumentation z.B. der Treibhausgaskonzentrationen jedoch nicht aus. Mithilfe neuer analytischer Methoden können Parameter gemessen werden, die es gestatten, die Ursachen der Änderungen im Detail zu untersuchen und ein globales Verständnis des Erdsystem zu erlangen.
Lay summary

Ziele

Übergeordnetes Ziel des Projekts ist ein vertieftes Prozessverständnis des Erdsystems und der Kopplung zwischen biogeochemischen Kreisläufen und Klima in der Vergangenheit. In iCEP werden drei Fragen untersucht:

1. Was sind die Quellen, die für Änderungen der atmosphärischen Treibhausgaskonzentrationen verantwortlich sind. Diese Frage kann mithilfe isotopischer Untersuchen an CO2, CH4 und N2O an Eisbohrkernen beantwortet werden.

2. Was sind die regionalen oder hemisphärischen Auswirkungen auf Umweltbedingungen, die durch Klimaänderungen verursacht werden? Einzigartige aerosolchemische Analysen an Eisbohrkernen gestatten dies zu quantifizieren.

3. Wie gross ist die globale Erwärmung, die mit Änderungen der Treibhausgaskonzentration verknüpft ist? Mithilfe hochpräziser Messungen der Edelgasverhältnisse im Eis kann die globale Ozeantemperatur rekonstruiert werden.

Kontext

Durch die detaillierte Untersuchung früherer Klimabedingungen (insbesondere des Holozäns und früherer Warmzeiten) können wichtige Informationen zur Treibhausgas-Klimakopplung und der Änderungen der Umwelt gewonnen werden. Damit trägt das Projekt zum verbesserten Verständnis des gekoppelten Erdsystems und damit zu verbesserten Prognosen zukünftiger Änderungen bei.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 11.04.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Project partner

Publications

Publication
Earth’s radiative imbalance from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present
Baggenstos Daniel, Häberli Marcel, Schmitt Jochen, Shackleton Sarah A., Birner Benjamin, Severinghaus Jeffrey P., Kellerhals Thomas, Fischer Hubertus (2019), Earth’s radiative imbalance from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(30), 14881-14886.
Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet across the mid-Pleistocene transition – implications for Oldest Ice
Sutter Johannes, Fischer Hubertus, Grosfeld Klaus, Karlsson Nanna B., Kleiner Thomas, Van Liefferinge Brice, Eisen Olaf (2019), Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet across the mid-Pleistocene transition – implications for Oldest Ice, in The Cryosphere, 13(7), 2023-2041.
Marine N 2 O emissions during a Younger Dryas-like event: the role of meridional overturning, tropical thermocline ventilation, and biological productivity
Joos Fortunat, Battaglia Gianna, Fischer Hubertus, Jeltsch-Thömmes Aurich, Schmitt Jochen (2019), Marine N 2 O emissions during a Younger Dryas-like event: the role of meridional overturning, tropical thermocline ventilation, and biological productivity, in Environmental Research Letters, 14(7), 075007-075007.
Industrial-era decline in subarctic Atlantic productivity
Osman Matthew B., Das Sarah B., Trusel Luke D., Evans Matthew J., Fischer Hubertus, Grieman Mackenzie M., Kipfstuhl Sepp, McConnell Joseph R., Saltzman Eric S. (2019), Industrial-era decline in subarctic Atlantic productivity, in Nature, 569(7757), 551-555.
Decadal-scale progression of the onset of Dansgaard–Oeschger warming events
Erhardt Tobias, Capron Emilie, Rasmussen Sune Olander, Schüpbach Simon, Bigler Matthias, Adolphi Florian, Fischer Hubertus (2019), Decadal-scale progression of the onset of Dansgaard–Oeschger warming events, in Climate of the Past, 15(2), 811-825.
Fe2+ in ice cores as a new potential proxy to detect past volcanic eruptions
Burgay François, Erhardt Tobias, Lunga Damiano Della, Jensen Camilla Marie, Spolaor Andrea, Vallelonga Paul, Fischer Hubertus, Barbante Carlo (2019), Fe2+ in ice cores as a new potential proxy to detect past volcanic eruptions, in Science of The Total Environment, 654, 1110-1117.
Impurity Analysis and Microstructure Along the Climatic Transition From MIS 6 Into 5e in the EDML Ice Core Using Cryo-Raman Microscopy
Eichler Jan, Weikusat Christian, Wegner Anna, Twarloh Birthe, Behrens Melanie, Fischer Hubertus, Hörhold Maria, Jansen Daniela, Kipfstuhl Sepp, Ruth Urs, Wilhelms Frank, Weikusat Ilka (2019), Impurity Analysis and Microstructure Along the Climatic Transition From MIS 6 Into 5e in the EDML Ice Core Using Cryo-Raman Microscopy, in Frontiers in Earth Science, 7(20), 1-16.
High-resolution isotopic evidence for a potential Saharan provenance of Greenland glacial dust
Han Changhee, Do Hur Soon, Han Yeongcheol, Lee Khanghyun, Hong Sungmin, Erhardt Tobias, Fischer Hubertus, Svensson Anders M., Steffensen Jørgen Peder, Vallelonga Paul (2018), High-resolution isotopic evidence for a potential Saharan provenance of Greenland glacial dust, in Scientific Reports, 8(1), 15582-15582.
Greenland records of aerosol source and atmospheric lifetime changes from the Eemian to the Holocene
Schüpbach S., Fischer H., Bigler M., Erhardt T., Gfeller G., Leuenberger D., Mini O., Mulvaney R., Abram N. J., Fleet L., Frey M. M., Thomas E., Svensson A., Dahl-Jensen D., Kettner E., Kjaer H., Seierstad I., Steffensen J. P., Rasmussen S. O., Vallelonga P., Winstrup M., Wegner A., Twarloh B., Wolff K., et al. (2018), Greenland records of aerosol source and atmospheric lifetime changes from the Eemian to the Holocene, in Nature Communications, 9(1), 1476-1476.
Bipolar carbon and hydrogen isotope constraints on the Holocene methane budget
Beck Jonas, Bock Michael, Schmitt Jochen, Seth Barbara, Blunier Thomas, Fischer Hubertus (2018), Bipolar carbon and hydrogen isotope constraints on the Holocene methane budget, in Biogeosciences, 15(23), 7155-7175.
Connecting the Greenland ice-core and U∕Th timescales via cosmogenic radionuclides: testing the synchroneity of Dansgaard–Oeschger events
Adolphi Florian, Bronk Ramsey Christopher, Erhardt Tobias, Edwards R. Lawrence, Cheng Hai, Turney Chris S. M., Cooper Alan, Svensson Anders, Rasmussen Sune O., Fischer Hubertus, Muscheler Raimund (2018), Connecting the Greenland ice-core and U∕Th timescales via cosmogenic radionuclides: testing the synchroneity of Dansgaard–Oeschger events, in Climate of the Past, 14(11), 1755-1781.
Palaeoclimate constraints on the impact of 2 °C anthropogenic warming and beyond
Fischer Hubertus, Meissner Katrin J., Mix Alan C., Abram Nerilie J., Austermann Jacqueline, Brovkin Victor, Capron Emilie, Colombaroli Daniele, Daniau Anne-Laure, Dyez Kelsey A., Felis Thomas, Finkelstein Sarah A., Jaccard Samuel L., McClymont Erin L., Rovere Alessio, Sutter Johannes, Wolff Eric W., Affolter Stéphane, Bakker Pepijn, Ballesteros-Cánovas Juan Antonio, Barbante Carlo, Caley Thibaut, Carlson Anders E., Churakova Olga, et al. (2018), Palaeoclimate constraints on the impact of 2 °C anthropogenic warming and beyond, in Nature Geoscience, 11(7), 474-485.
Interlaboratory comparison of <i>δ</i><sup>13</sup>C and <i>δ</i>D measurements of atmospheric CH<sub>4</sub> for combined use of data sets from different laboratories
Umezawa Taku, Brenninkmeijer Carl A. M., Röckmann Thomas, van der Veen Carina, Tyler Stanley C., Fujita Ryo, Morimoto Shinji, Aoki Shuji, Sowers Todd, Schmitt Jochen, Bock Michael, Beck Jonas, Fischer Hubertus, Michel Sylvia E., Vaughn Bruce H., Miller John B., White James W. C., Brailsford Gordon, Schaefer Hinrich, Sperlich Peter, Brand Willi A., Rothe Michael, Blunier Thomas, Lowry David, et al. (2018), Interlaboratory comparison of <i>δ</i><sup>13</sup>C and <i>δ</i>D measurements of atmospheric CH<sub>4</sub> for combined use of data sets from different laboratories, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11(2), 1207-1231.
Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium
Bohleber Pascal, Erhardt Tobias, Spaulding Nicole, Hoffmann Helene, Fischer Hubertus, Mayewski Paul (2018), Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium, in Climate of the Past, 14(1), 21-37.
The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 2: Two interglacials, scientific objective and experimental design for Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations
Otto-Bliesner Bette L., Braconnot Pascale, Harrison Sandy P., Lunt Daniel J., Abe-Ouchi Ayako, Albani Samuel, Bartlein Patrick J., Capron Emilie, Carlson Anders E., Dutton Andrea, Fischer Hubertus, Goelzer Heiko, Govin Aline, Haywood Alan, Joos Fortunat, LeGrande Allegra N., Lipscomb William H., Lohmann Gerrit, Mahowald Natalie, Nehrbass-Ahles Christoph, Pausata Francesco S. R., Peterschmitt Jean-Yves, Phipps Steven J., Renssen Hans, et al. (2017), The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 2: Two interglacials, scientific objective and experimental design for Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations, in Geoscientific Model Development, 10(11), 3979-4003.
Glacial/interglacial wetland, biomass burning, and geologic methane emissions constrained by dual stable isotopic CH 4 ice core records
Bock Michael, Schmitt Jochen, Beck Jonas, Seth Barbara, Chappellaz Jérôme, Fischer Hubertus (2017), Glacial/interglacial wetland, biomass burning, and geologic methane emissions constrained by dual stable isotopic CH 4 ice core records, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(29), E5778-E5786.
A 156 kyr smoothed history of the atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O and their radiative forcing
Köhler Peter, Nehrbass-Ahles Christoph, Schmitt Jochen, Stocker Thomas F., Fischer Hubertus (2017), A 156 kyr smoothed history of the atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O and their radiative forcing, in Earth System Science Data, 9(1), 363-387.

Awards

Title Year
Hans Oeschger Medal, European Geosciences Union 2018
Dansgaard Award, American Geophysical Union 2017

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
164190 EGRIP: The Swiss Contribution 01.04.2016 Research Infrastructure
159563 Climate and Environmental Physics 01.04.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
157671 AeroTope: A novel method for mass spectrometric measurements of nitrogen isotopes in NH4+, an aerosol derived proxy to quantify nutrient cycling efficiency in the Southern Ocean 01.01.2015 R'EQUIP
155906 NOTICE: Noble gas global mean ocean thermometry on ice cores 01.01.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Paleoclimate studies on polar ice cores provide a wealth of climate and atmospheric information, with the documentation of greenhouse gas concentrations and hence radiative forcing changes being amongst the most prominent examples. The latest analytical developments in ice core research in my group allow for a more detailed and quantitative process understanding of past changes in climate and biogeochemical cycles and the feedbacks between them. The objective of iCEP is to extend these new techniques and apply them to new and existing ice cores. This comprises A) the quantification of source emissions and processes responsible for the change in greenhouse gas concentrations, B) the reconstruction of environmental changes outside the ice sheets using ice core aerosol records and C) the quantification of changes in the ocean heat budget and hence temperature changes on a global scale. A special focus of these 3 topics will be the study of past interglacials over the last 800,000 years to understand the reasons for their different strength of warming and to improve our knowledge of climate/biogeochemical coupling during warm climates. Within iCEP we will apply the worldwide unique capability in my group to measure the full suite of stable isotopes of greenhouse gases in ice cores (d13CO2, d18O(CO2), d13CH4, dD(CH4), d15N2O, d18O(N2O) to selected ice core intervals in order to gain a deeper process understanding of past changes in the biogeochemical cycles and to constrain the source budget of these greenhouse gases. We will use the comprehensive multiparameter aerosol tracer information derived from Continuous Flow Analyses (CFA) to assess temporal changes in the source strength and transport and, thus, environmental conditions away from the ice sheets. A special focus within iCEP will be CFA analyses on the ongoing EGRIP ice core drilling to obtain the first complete Holocene aerosol record in seasonal resolution. Finally, measurements of noble gas isotopic and elemental ratios in ice cores will allow us to reconstruct Global Mean Ocean Temperature (GMOT) using a novel noble gas solubility thermometer. This will also provide unique information on ocean heat uptake or release during long-term transient climate changes. Synthesis of these three quantitative strains of paleoclimate information with other ice core records, other paleoclimate archives and climate model output will enhance our understanding of past and future changes in the Earth System.
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