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Ces femmes qui ont fait l'humanitaire : une histoire genrée de la compassion de la Guerre Franco-Prusienne à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale

English title Those Women who performed Humanitarian Action: A Gendered history of compassion from the Franco-Prussian War to the Second World War
Applicant Martín Moruno Dolores
Number 170484
Funding scheme SNSF Professorships
Research institution Institut Ethique Histoire Humanités - iEH2 Faculté de Médecine Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline General history (without pre-and early history)
Start/End 01.09.2017 - 31.08.2021
Approved amount 1'176'627.00
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Keywords (7)

Gender Studies; History of nursing; History of emotions; Visual Culture Studies; History of humanitarianism; History of medicine; Literary and Cultural Studies

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Ce projet vise à rectifier l’historiographie de l’humanitaire, largement écrite au masculin, en reconstruisant les secours d’urgence que les femmes ont porté aux victimes de guerres totales. L’accent sur la compassion permet d’analyser ce sentiment humanitaire par excellence, du point de vue du genre : cette capacité à ressentir la douleur d’autrui et de la soulager que les femmes ont revendiqué comme un ensemble de pratiques relatives aux soins. L’importance de retracer l’évolution de ces pratiques, qui représentent un savoir situé, s’avère essentiel à la constitution du mouvement humanitaire.
Lay summary

Contenu et objectifs du travail de recherche 

Ce travail sera effectué en quatre étapes. La première prévoit de retracer la généalogie de la compassion à partir des pratiques de femmes actives dans le mouvement de réforme sociale de la fin du XIXe siècle. Les trois suivantes visent à comprendre comment les femmes humanitaires ont transformé la compassion en une émotion transnationale. Le cadre défini par la Guerre Franco-Prussienne, la Grande Guerre et, au carrefour de la Guerre d’Espagne et de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale répond à la nécessité de reconstruire les pratiques de femmes humanitaires regardant la souffrance des différentes victimes comme les soldats blessés, les prisonniers et les réfugiés.

Contexte scientifique et social du projet de recherche 

Le projet intègre des méthodes et des analyses liées à l’histoire de la médecine, l’histoire du nursing, les études de genre, l’histoire des émotions, les études en culture visuelle et la critique littéraire. Les sources comprennent des archives historiques et des récits personnels. Il contribue à l’histoire de l’humanitaire, l’histoire de la médecine ainsi qu'à l’histoire de la Suisse.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 25.04.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Afterword
Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (2019), Afterword, in Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (ed.), Illinois University Press, Urbana/Champaign, 263-265.
Emotional Bodies: the Historical Performativity of Emotions
Pichel Beatriz, Martín Moruno Dolores (ed.) (2019), Emotional Bodies: the Historical Performativity of Emotions, Illinois University Press, Urbana-Champaign.
Fearful Female Bodies: The Pétroleuses of the Paris Commune
Martín MorunoDolores (2019), Fearful Female Bodies: The Pétroleuses of the Paris Commune, in Martín Pichel Dolores Beatriz (ed.), University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Champaign, 175-193.
Introduction. What Love Does
Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (2019), Introduction. What Love Does, in Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (ed.), Illinois University Press, Urbana/Champaign, 1-12.
Part I. Diseased Bodies under Construction
Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (2019), Part I. Diseased Bodies under Construction, in Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (ed.), Illinois University Press, Urbana/Champaign, 15-18.
Part II. Performing Emotional Bodies
Martín/PichelDolores/Beatriz (2019), Part II. Performing Emotional Bodies, in Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (ed.), Illinois University Press, Urbana/Champaign, 73-75.
Part III. Making Social Bodies
Martín/PichelDolores/Beatriz (2019), Part III. Making Social Bodies, in Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (ed.), Illinois University Press, Urbana/Champaign, 145-149.
Part IV. Humanitarian Bodies in Action
Martín/PichelDolores/Beatriz (2019), Part IV. Humanitarian Bodies in Action, in Martín/Pichel Dolores/Beatriz (ed.), Illnois University Press, Urbana/Champaign, 195-197.
El practicante. El nacimiento de una nueva profesión sanitaria en España
Bláquez OmatIsabel (2019), El practicante. El nacimiento de una nueva profesión sanitaria en España, in Gesnerus, 76(1), 117-119.
This Mortal Coil. The Human Body in History and Culture
Bound AlbertiFay (2018), This Mortal Coil. The Human Body in History and Culture, in Gesnerus, 74(2), 275-276.
Genèse d'une découverte. La division des infusoires (1765-1766)
RatcliffMarc J. (2017), Genèse d'une découverte. La division des infusoires (1765-1766), in Isis, 104(4), 913-914.
¿Un país para los refugiados? Las enfermeras suizas de los trenes de la Gran Guerra
Martín MorunoDolores (2017), ¿Un país para los refugiados? Las enfermeras suizas de los trenes de la Gran Guerra, SEHM, Ciudad real.
Tejiendo redes de cuidado: la compasión como conocimiento de las mujeres humanitarias en la guerra
Martín Moruno Dolores (2017), Tejiendo redes de cuidado: la compasión como conocimiento de las mujeres humanitarias en la guerra, Sociedad española de historia de la medicina, Ciudad Real.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Institut d'Etudes genre, Université de Genève Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Maison de l'histoire, Université de Genève Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Universitat de València Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Binghamton University, State University of New York United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Université de Genève Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Manchester/Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
ARC Center for the History of Emotions/University of Queensland Australia (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
New York University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
CSIC-Institut Milà i Fontanals Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
CERAH Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Regarding the Pain of Others: What Emotions have to do within the History of Humanitarian Images Talk given at a conference The Queen’s Medicine Wartime Photography at l’Hôpital de l’Océan (1914-1919) 04.07.2019 Auditoire de la Fondation Louis Jeantet, Switzerland Leyder Marie;
Regarding the Pain of Others: What Emotions have to do within the History of Humanitarian Images Talk given at a conference Photographing the Pain of Others: For an Archive of Feelings within the History of Humanitarianism 04.07.2019 Auditoire de la Fondation Louis Jeantet, Switzerland Martín Moruno Dolores;
Regarding the Pain of Others: What Emotions have to Do within the History of Humanitarian Images Talk given at a conference Reconstructing Rivesaltes' in the Cinema of Jacqueline Veuve 04.07.2019 Auditoire de la Fondation Louis Jeantet, Switzerland Edgar Brenda Lynn;
Entre los campos y los hospitales : Ayuda médica humanitaria a refugiados españoles en Francia (1939-1950) Talk given at a conference Excavando la experiencia humanitaria de Friedel Bohny Reiter de las ruinas del campo de Rivesaltes 13.06.2019 Residencia d'investigadors (CSIC), Spain Martín Moruno Dolores; Leyder Marie;
International Conference History of Experience: Theories, Practices and Methodologies Talk given at a conference Gendering Humanitarian Compassion during WWI 04.03.2019 Tampere University, Finland Leyder Marie; Martín Moruno Dolores;
International Conference History of Experience Talk given at a conference Gendering Humanitarian Compassion during WWI 04.03.2019 University of Tampere , Finland Martín Moruno Dolores; Leyder Marie;
Conférence internationale Humanities in Transition Talk given at a conference Humanitarian Emotions: A History of the Present 23.10.2018 Palau Macaya (Barcelone), Spain Martín Moruno Dolores;
Humanities in Transition Talk given at a conference Humanitarian Emotions. A History of the Present 23.10.2018 Palau Macaya (Barcelone), Spain Martín Moruno Dolores;
Pain and compassion: medico-politcal dynamics, c.1850-1950. Society for the Social History of Medicine Conference. Talk given at a conference A Politics of Care: Translating Compassion into Women’s Action in the Late-Nineteenth Century British Social Reform and Early Humanitarian Movement 11.06.2018 University of Liverpool , Great Britain and Northern Ireland Vidor Gian Marco; Martín Moruno Dolores;
Conférence internationale Gendering Humanitarian Knowledge: Global Histories of Compassion from the late Nineteenth Century to the Present Talk given at a conference What History of Humanitarian Relief? 20.04.2018 Université de Genève, Switzerland Vidor Gian Marco;
Conférence internationale Gendering Humanitarian Knowledge: Global Histories of Compassion from the late Nineteenth Century to the Present Talk given at a conference The faces of compassion in Sarah Monod’s Drawings during the Franco- Prussian War 20.04.2018 Université de Genève , Switzerland Martín Moruno Dolores;
Conférence internationale Gendering Humanitarian Knowledge: Global Histories of Compassion from the late Nineteenth Century to the Present Talk given at a conference An Examination of Belgian Nurses and Godmothers: their Emotional Battle in the Great War 20.04.2018 Université de Genève, Switzerland Leyder Marie;
Emotions and Subjectivation in Patients-Doctor Relationship: Interdicisciplinary and Gender Perspectives Talk given at a conference Who cares about soldiers’ suffering? Florence Nigthingale’s Letters from the Crimea. European Social Science History Conference 04.04.2018 Belfast, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Martín Moruno Dolores;
Vulnerables: compassiò i cures d’infermeria en la història de l’humanitarisme Individual talk ‘I have done my duty’: la fatiga de la compasión en Florence Nightingale 15.03.2018 CSIC (Barcelone), Spain Martín Moruno Dolores;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Regarding the Pain of Others: What Emotions have to do within the History of Humanitarian Images 04.07.2019 Auditoire de la Fondation Louis Jeantet, Switzerland
Conférence publique : Rony Brauman « À quoi servent les principes ? » 06.12.2018 Faculté de Médecine/Université de Genève , Switzerland
Séminaire Migrant-e-s, santé et histoire organisé par l’iEH2/Programme Santé et Migrants aux Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève. 21.11.2018 CMU, Switzerland
Gendering Humanitarian Knowledge. Global Histories of Compassion from the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present 20.04.2018 Université de Genève , Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year

Awards

Title Year
2019 SNSF Scientific Images Competition. Distinction in the category 3 2019
Prix des Fonds Koen Koch du Flanders Fields Museum 2019
Prix MIMOSA du Service de Médecine Communautaire. « Engagées en première ligne : marraines et infirmières de la Grande Guerre » 2019

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
168954 Warriors without Weapons: Humanitarian Action in the Spanish Civil War and the Republican Exile 01.10.2016 Scientific Conferences

Abstract

Those Women who performed Humanitarian Action: A Gendered history of Compassion from the Franco-Prussian World to WWIIIn the beginning of humanitarianism, various agents -businessmen, military physicians, political representatives of the European Empires, as well as some active women in social reform movements- contributed to shaping compassion as an emotion of transnational scope. In this way, compassion is able to connect geographically distant people in order to mobilize the necessary resources to provide effective assistance in the field. In particular, this project focuses on demonstrating how women participated in the construction of modern humanitarianism by producing a gendered conception of compassion. They achieved this, by identifying this ability to feel other’s suffering and to relieve it with the implementation of a set of caring practices, whose exclusively female competences, justified their action in emergency relief operations. Thus, compassion provided them with an agency when creating networks aimed at assisting different types of victims, which are here represented by means of the wounded soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), the disabled prisoners during the First World War (1914-9) as well as the refugees resulting from the Republican exile throughout the Spanish Civil War (1936-9) and the persecution of the Jews during the Second World War (1939-1945). This research seeks to retrace those networks, as they promoted the development of a know-how strongly rooted in emotions, notably in love, sympathy and compassion, which women would have cultivated for centuries in the domestic sphere. This know-how will be interpreted here as a situated knowledge that these women humanitarians - ambulance women, nurses, but also other volunteers involved in the protection of victims- have produced throughout the main armed conflicts of the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. The objectives are to shed light on the caring practices that they provided in the name of a gendered conception of compassion, as well as to disclose the power relations brought into play by this emotion throughout the history of total wars. Considering that compassion always entails an asymmetric relationship between the humanitarian holder and the recipient, the study of its changing relations when women faced the suffering of various distressed populations - the wounded soldiers, the disabled prisoners and the refugees- allow us to show the evolution of humanitarian aid from the late-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century.
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