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Swiss Early Instrumental Measurements for Studying Decadal Climate Variability (CHIMES)

English title Swiss Early Instrumental Measurements for Studying Decadal Climate Variability (CHIMES)
Applicant Brönnimann Stefan
Number 169676
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Geographisches Institut Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.11.2016 - 31.10.2019
Approved amount 400'000.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Meteorology

Keywords (5)

climate variability; past climate; climate reconstruction; historical climatology; climate observations

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Historische Wetterdaten der Schweiz vor dem Start des nationalen Beobachtungsnetztes 1864 wurden nie systematisch aufgearbeitet. Im CHIMES-Projekt werden diese Daten zusammengestellt, soweit als möglich digitialisiert und der Wissenschaft zugänglich gemacht und hinsichtlich ihrer dekadalen Variabilität analysiert.
Lay summary

Mit der zunehmenden Bedeutung von Klimarisiken infolge des Klimawandels geraten extreme Wetterereignisse immer stärker in den Fokus der Wissenschaft. Das gilt auch und besonders für vergangene Extremereignisse, die uns einmal mehr vor Augen führen, dass wir aus der Vergangenheit lernen können. Damit werden historische Wetterdaten wieder wichtig. In der Schweiz reichen Wetterdaten in der Regel zurück bis 1864, dem Beginn des heutigen Messnetzes. Bereits in den hundert Jahren davor wurde allerdings viel gemessen, wenn auch weit weniger systematisch. Diese Daten wären für die heutige Forschung nützlich, da in diese Zeit einige relevante Wetter- und Klimaereignisse fielen, wurden aber nie systematisch aufgearbeitet. Im CHIMES Projekt soll ein systematisches Inventar dieser Daten erstellt, die Bestände aufgespürt und möglichst fotographiert werden. Gemäss einer Priorisierung soll dann ein grosser Teil dieser Daten digitalisiert und der Wissenschaft zugänglich gemacht werden. Die Datenreihen werden hinsichtlich der dekadalen Variabilität von Wetter und Klima, inbsesondere Extremereignissen, untersucht. Schliesslich wird im Projekt auch der Versuch unternommen, flächendeckende tägliche Rekonstruktionen der Temperatur für die Schweiz zurück ins 18. Jahrhundert zu erstellen. Dazu werden mehrere Methoden entwickelt und erprobt.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 19.10.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Last phase of the Little Ice Age forced by volcanic eruptions
Brönnimann Stefan, Franke Jörg, Nussbaumer Samuel U., Zumbühl Heinz J., Steiner Daniel, Trachsel Mathias, Hegerl Gabriele C., Schurer Andrew, Worni Matthias, Malik Abdul, Flückiger Julian, Raible Christoph C. (2019), Last phase of the Little Ice Age forced by volcanic eruptions, in Nature Geoscience, 12(8), 650-656.
Causes of increased flood frequency in central Europe in the 19th century
Brönnimann Stefan, Frigerio Luca, Schwander Mikhaël, Rohrer Marco, Stucki Peter, Franke Jörg (2019), Causes of increased flood frequency in central Europe in the 19th century, in Climate of the Past, 15(4), 1395-1409.
Early instrumental meteorological measurements in Switzerland
Pfister Lucas, Hupfer Franziska, Brugnara Yuri, Munz Lukas, Villiger Leonie, Meyer Lukas, Schwander Mikhaël, Isotta Francesco Alessandro, Rohr Christian, Brönnimann Stefan (2019), Early instrumental meteorological measurements in Switzerland, in Climate of the Past, 15(4), 1345-1361.
Climate data empathy
Brönnimann Stefan, Wintzer Jeannine (2019), Climate data empathy, in Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 10(2), e559-e559.
Historical weather data for climate risk assessment
Brönnimann Stefan, Martius Olivia, Rohr Christian, Bresch David N., Lin Kuan-Hui Elaine (2019), Historical weather data for climate risk assessment, in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1436(1), 121-137.
Reconstruction and simulation of an extreme flood event in the Lago Maggiore catchment in 1868
Stucki Peter, Bandhauer Moritz, Heikkilä Ulla, Rössler Ole, Zappa Massimiliano, Pfister Lucas, Salvisberg Melanie, Froidevaux Paul, Martius Olivia, Panziera Luca, Brönnimann Stefan (2018), Reconstruction and simulation of an extreme flood event in the Lago Maggiore catchment in 1868, in Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 18(10), 2717-2739.
Observations for Reanalyses
Brönnimann Stefan, Allan Rob, Atkinson Christopher, Buizza Roberto, Bulygina Olga, Dahlgren Per, Dee Dick, Dunn Robert, Gomes Pedro, John Viju O., Jourdain Sylvie, Haimberger Leopold, Hersbach Hans, Kennedy John, Poli Paul, Pulliainen Jouni, Rayner Nick, Saunders Roger, Schulz Jörg, Sterin Alexander, Stickler Alexander, Titchner Holly, Valente Maria Antonia, Ventura Clara, et al. (2018), Observations for Reanalyses, in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(9), 1851-1866.
Archives of Nature and Archives of Societies
Brönnimann Stefan, Pfister Christian, White Sam (2018), Archives of Nature and Archives of Societies, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 27-36.
A roadmap to climate data rescue services
Brönnimann Stefan, Brugnara Yuri, Allan Rob J., Brunet Manola, Compo Gilbert P., Crouthamel Richard I., Jones Philip D., Jourdain Sylvie, Luterbacher Jürg, Siegmund Peter, Valente Maria Antónia, Wilkinson Clive W. (2018), A roadmap to climate data rescue services, in Geoscience Data Journal, 5(1), 28-39.
Society and history imprint climate data
Brönnimann Stefan, Wintzer Jeannine (2018), Society and history imprint climate data, in Nature, 554(7693), 423-423.
1868 – das Hochwasser, das die Schweiz veränderte: Ursachen, Folgen und Lehren für die Zukunft
BrönnimannStefan (2018), 1868 – das Hochwasser, das die Schweiz veränderte: Ursachen, Folgen und Lehren für die Zukunft, Geographica Bernensia, Bern.
CH2018 – Climate Scenarios for Switzerland, Technical Report
CH2018 (2018), CH2018 – Climate Scenarios for Switzerland, Technical Report, National Centre for Climate Services, Zurich.
Nützliche historische Wetterdaten
BrönnimannStefan (2018), Nützliche historische Wetterdaten, in GeoAgenda, 2018(3), 8-12.
Toward an Integrated Set of Surface Meteorological Observations for Climate Science and Applications
Thorne P. W., Allan R. J., Ashcroft L., Brohan P., Dunn R. J. H, Menne M. J., Pearce P. R., Picas J., Willett K. M., Benoy M., Bronnimann S., Canziani P. O., Coll J., Crouthamel R., Compo G. P., Cuppett D., Curley M., Duffy C., Gillespie I., Guijarro J., Jourdain S., Kent E. C., Kubota H., Legg T. P., et al. (2017), Toward an Integrated Set of Surface Meteorological Observations for Climate Science and Applications, in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98(12), 2689-2702.
Simulating crop yield losses in Switzerland for historical and present Tambora climate scenarios
Flückiger Simon, Brönnimann Stefan, Holzkämper Annelie, Fuhrer Jürg, Krämer Daniel, Pfister Christian, Rohr Christian (2017), Simulating crop yield losses in Switzerland for historical and present Tambora climate scenarios, in Environmental Research Letters, 12(7), 074026-074026.
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Temps et climat en Suisse dans les années 1810
BrönnimannStefan, Temps et climat en Suisse dans les années 1810, in Annales Valaisannes.

Datasets

Early Instrumental Meteorological Measurements in Switzerland

Author Pfister, Lucas
Publication date 14.11.2019
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3066836
Repository Zenodo


Reconstruction of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Fields in Switzerland back to 1864

Author Pfister, Lucas
Publication date 14.11.2019
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.1594/PANGAEA.907579
Repository PANGEAE


Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
University of Lisbon Portugal (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
ACRE Initiative, UK Met Office Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
I-DARE, KNMI Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
GPCC Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
NOAA/NCDI United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
NOAA/CIRES and Univ. Colorado, CDC United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Natural Sciences Societies of Cantons Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Copernicus Climate Change Services 3rd General Assembly Talk given at a conference Conventional Data Rescue 29.10.2019 Warsaw, Poland Brönnimann Stefan;
Symposium meteorological libraries/archives weather services europe Talk given at a conference Unlocking pre-1850 instrumental meteorological records: A global inventory 24.10.2019 Vienna (by skype), Austria Brönnimann Stefan;
PAGES CRAIS Workshop Talk given at a conference Unlocking pre-1850 instrumental meteorological records: A global inventory 08.10.2019 Leipzig, Germany Brönnimann Stefan;
ISCM Conference Zurich Talk given at a conference Climate Change - A state of science review 24.09.2019 Zurich, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Swiss Engineering STV – Sektion Berner Oberland Individual talk Klima und Wetter im Laufe der Zeit 19.09.2019 Steffisburg, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
von Humboldt into the Anthropocene Talk given at a conference Humboldt and Earth System Sciences 21.06.2019 Halle, Germany Brönnimann Stefan;
Buch am Mittag Individual talk Die Überschwemmungen von 1868: Ein Hochwasser prägt die Schweiz 11.06.2019 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Forum für Wissen, WSL Davos Talk given at a conference Simulation des Hochwassers von 1868 und Lehren für die Zukunft 24.05.2019 Davos, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Historischer Verein Luzern Individual talk 1868 – ein Hochwasser prägt die Schweiz 25.03.2019 Luzern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Science Talk Individual talk Klima entziffern 14.03.2019 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Volkshochschule Schwyz Individual talk 1868 – ein Hochwasser prägt die Schweiz 12.03.2019 Schwyz, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference 1868 – the flood that changed Switzerland 01.12.2018 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference Climatic changes in Switzerland over the last 300 years 01.12.2018 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Archive der Umwelt. Naturwissenschaften und Geschichte Talk given at a conference Historische Wetterdaten - Klimatologische und geschichtswissenschaftliche Perspektiven 23.11.2018 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan; Hupfer Franziska;
11th ACRE ACRE (Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth) Workshop Talk given at a conference A global inventory of early instrumental records 12.11.2018 Tokyo, Japan Brönnimann Stefan;
Mini-Workshop on Historical Climate Talk given at a conference A global palaeo reanalysis using early instrumental and documentary data in an off-line data assimilation approach 08.11.2018 Taipei, Taiwan Brönnimann Stefan;
Mediathek Wallis Individual talk 1868 – ein Hochwasser prägt die Schweiz 30.10.2018 Brig, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Kantonsbibliothek Chur Individual talk 1868 – ein Hochwasser prägt die Schweiz 24.09.2018 Chur, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Oeschger Centre Plenary Individual talk he 1868 floods: an interdisciplinary project 14.09.2018 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Science at Noon Individual talk Ein Hochwasser, das die Schweiz prägte 11.09.2018 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Baudirektion St. Gallen Individual talk Klimawandel in der Schweiz 10.09.2018 St. Gallen, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Early Instrumental Meteorological Series Talk given at a conference Early Instrumental Data from Switzerland 18.06.2018 Bern, Switzerland Brugnara Yuri; Pfister Lucas Martin;
Colloque Giétro 1818 Talk given at a conference Climate in Switzerland in the Early 19th Century 15.06.2018 Le Châble, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
Citizen Science – Gemeinsam forschen und lernen in Hydrologie und Limnologie Talk given at a conference Save the Data: Global Climate Data Rescue 11.06.2018 Zurich, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;
AMS Meeting New York Individual talk Learning From Past Weather 28.03.2018 New York, United States of America Brönnimann Stefan;
Climate Services Symposium Talk given at a conference Reanalysis Stories 14.12.2017 Bern, Switzerland Brönnimann Stefan;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
162668 Reconstructing Climate Using Ensemble Kalman Fitting (REUSE) 01.06.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
146599 Physics-based correction of inhomogeneities in temperature series related to the change from Wild screens to Stevenson screens (TWIST) 01.02.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
188701 Daily Weather Reconstructions to Study Decadal Climate Swings 01.04.2020 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The scientific environment surrounding the problems of climate change adaptation and climate risk management is evolving rapidly. With changes in research questions (from mean climate towards extremes), the desire for more regional information and the refinement of impact models, past weather data become once again an important resource. New numerical techniques such as data assimilation are now able to use historical observations to produce comprehensive day-to-day weather reconstruc-tions from which further products can be derived. However, vast amounts of weather data have still not been digitised, including in Switzerland. The Swiss Meteorological Network was initiated in De-cember 1863 and maintained by the Swiss Natural Sciences Society and later MeteoSwiss. The Swiss measurements before 1864 have never been systematically explored. However, the climate of the late 18th and 19th centuries might hold the key for better understanding decadal climate processes as this period encompassed a pronounced (still not understood) warm phase around 1800, the coldest decade of the last 500 years around the “Year Without a Summer” of 1816, another cold phase in the 1830s and a period of increased flood frequency in the second half of the 19th century. These periods had implications for the environment (e.g., glacier advance), society (e.g., famine), and politics (e.g., Swiss forestry law), whose study would contribute to better understand climate-society interaction.Three prominent Swiss series that reach further back than 1864 (Geneva, Basel, Gr. St. Bernard) have recently been digitised based on the original readings. However, there are several additional series, including two long series from Schaffhausen and Bern reaching back to the 18th century and several shorter series from the 18th and 19th centuries. Together, they could substantially extend the available information. In the proposed project we will (1) produce a systematic survey of pre-1864 Swiss meteorological data, (2) digitise a large fraction of these data, (3) perform quality assurance and breakpoint detection, (4) deliver the metadata and data to various Swiss and global data centres and (5) analyse decadal climate variability in Switzerland during the 19th century. The data sets will be sent to several data centres, including the International Surface Pressure Database from which future global reanalysis data sets will be produced. Together with those data sets already digitised and some series in neighbouring countries, the new data series (if their quality permits) will be used to (6) produce daily 2 km gridded weather reconstructions for Switzerland spanning the past ca. 200 years. Two approaches (an Ensemble Kalman Filter approach based on analogs and Reduced Space Optimal Interpolation) will be tested and applied.
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