autumn research; biodiversity; big data; mycology; phenology; mushroom fruiting; climate change; fungal ecology; Europe; citizen science; ecosystem functioning
Andrew Carrie, Halvorsen Rune, Heegaard Einar, Kuyper Thomas W., Heilmann-Clausen Jacob, Krisai-Greilhuber Irmgard, Bässler Claus, Egli Simon, Gange Alan C., Høiland Klaus, Kirk Paul M., Senn-Irlet Beatrice, Boddy Lynne, Büntgen Ulf, Kauserud Håvard (2018), Continental-scale macrofungal assemblage patterns correlate with climate, soil carbon and nitrogen deposition, in Journal of Biogeography
, 45(8), 1942-1953.
Andrew Carrie, Heegaard Einar, Høiland Klaus, Senn-Irlet Beatrice, Kuyper Thomas W., Krisai-Greilhuber Irmgard, Kirk Paul M., Heilmann-Clausen Jacob, Gange Alan C., Egli Simon, Bässler Claus, Büntgen Ulf, Boddy Lynne, Kauserud Håvard (2018), Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability, in Ecology
, 99(6), 1306-1315.
Andrew Carrie, Heegaard Einar, Gange Alan C., Senn-Irlet Beatrice, Egli Simon, Kirk Paul M., Büntgen Ulf, Kauserud Håvard, Boddy Lynne (2018), Congruency in fungal phenology patterns across dataset sources and scales, in Fungal Ecology
, 32, 9-17.
Global change has been shown to affect agricultural and natural ecosystems by alterations in land use/land cover, atmospheric composition, climate, as well as many other often complex and intertwined factors. Biodiversity and phenology are critical indicators of ecosystem functioning and productivity that must be understood in terms of a changing environment. As key components of natural ecosystems through decomposition, parasitism and mutualism, fungi are particularly important to be understood in this respect. Fungal distributional dynamics in relation to abiotic drivers, such as environmental change, remain unresolved. The phenological responses of fungal fruiting to climate change have identified different fruiting trends and extremes at local- to regional-scales. A detailed picture of continental-scale response patterns of fungal fruiting phenology is, however, still lacking. High quality data of the most visible component of the fungal kingdom, i.e. mushroom fruit bodies, are limited in terms of temporal, spatial and taxonomic extent plus resolution. This resulted in a major barrier preventing analyses of fungal distributional patterns and responses to global change across large-scales. Statistical assessment likewise must be better integrated at cutting edge levels capable of appropriate analyses. It is thus imperative to not only focus on global change impacts of fungi across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales, but also to consider evidence at levels capable of addressing such key issues in ecology. Two major advances have recently helped dissolve statistical and data limitations that have been preventing further ecological studies of fungi and climate change. First, state-of-the-art statistical modeling approaches have become more accessible through server networks that are capable of running complex and novel statistical analyses. Second and even more importantly, the lack of well-replicated, long-term field-based data has been remedied by a newly generated meta-database that contains over seven million harmonized fungal records that are distributed across Europe and ready for utilization. This previously unprecedented level of quality data provides the ideal opportunity to fill in ecological gaps concerning fungi and global change. Here we propose Euro-FC, a timely initiative to carefully analyze the largest and most comprehensive compilation of data available in the field of mycological ecology. We plan innovative methodologies to investigate temporal and spatial dynamics of fungal fruiting across Europe. A harmonized fraction of the multi-decadal meta-dataset (~6.2 out of >7.0 million fungal records), which covers nine nations in central and northern Europe, will be utilized. This unique meta-dataset is ready for immediate utilization, especially for autumnal-based research on ecological effects of climate change, which describes a still neglected component when compared to similar research related to the spring season. Euro-FC will immediately address two pending topics in the field of mycological-based ecology: 1) How has fungal fruiting varied in Europe since the mid-20th century, and to what extent are phenological responses consistent with the phenology observed among other organisms, such as plants? 2) How did and does climate variability affect the observed patterns in continental-scale mushroom phenology, both at intra-annual and multi-decadal time-scales? The expected outcome is especially important because fungal fruiting, as well as possible associations with climatic drivers, has not yet been described at such scales. Species-based fruiting responses to environmental change will also provide novel insights into aspects of fungal productivity and diversity. Euro-FC therefore promises lucrative gains through two high impact peer-reviewed ISI publications, one for each objective (1 and 2), and with much potential to present original and exciting cross-disciplinary research at academic, educational and societal meetings.