Project

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Towards a quantitative understanding of caldera-forming events

Applicant Bachmann Olivier
Number 165501
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.04.2016 - 30.04.2018
Approved amount 262'019.00
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Keywords (4)

Caldera; Volcanic hazards; Silicic magma; Magma reservoirs

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Les grandes éruptions volcaniques sont les seules catastrophes naturelles à avoir un impact global, étant capables de modifier le climat pour plusieurs années suite aux énormes quantités de cendres et de gaz relâchés dans l’atmosphère. Il est donc fondamental de mieux comprendre, où, quand et comment les prochaines éruptions vont se dérouler. Pour cela, nous devons nous concentrer sur les réservoirs magmatiques à faible profondeur, qui déterminent la taille et le style des éruptions futures sur un site donné.
Lay summary

Contenu et objectifs du travail de recherche

Notre principal objectif est de contribuer à une meilleure compréhension de la dynamique des grandes chambres magmatiques dans la partie supérieure de l’écorce terrestre. Plus précisément, nous souhaitons mieux contraindre comment et à quelle vitesse les grandes poches de magma visqueux et chargé en gaz (donc très explosif) se forment. Pour cela, nous avons accès (1) à des nombreuses éruptions de faible magnitude qui précèdent l’évènement paroxysmal, sur lesquelles nous pouvons acquérir une multitude de données géochimiques indiquant l’état de la chambre magmatique au cours du temps et (2) à des nouvelles méthodes de simulation numérique permettant une meilleure prédiction des processus physiques se déroulant dans ces chambres. Cette première extension d’un projet à long-terme se concentrera principalement sur deux systèmes volcaniques actifs, ayant générés des grandes éruptions par le passé : (1) Mount St. Helens (USA), et (2) Campi Flegreii, Italie. Suite aux nombreuses analyses géochimiques effectuées lors du premier volet de cette recherche sur ces deux volcans, cette seconde partie se focalisera sur la partie modélisation numérique. 

Contexte scientifique et social du projet de recherche

Notre travail générera des informations inédites et essentielles sur l’état passé et présent des réservoirs magmatiques dans les régions volcaniques susmentionnées. Nos résultats nous permettrons d’avoir une idée plus précise sur leur évolution future.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 29.03.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Deep into magma plumbing systems: Interrogating the crystal cargo of volcanic deposits
Ganne J. Bachmann O. and Feng X. (2018), Deep into magma plumbing systems: Interrogating the crystal cargo of volcanic deposits, in Geology, 46, 415.
Petrological constraints on the high-Mg basalts from Capo Marargiu (Sardinia, Italy): Evidences of cryptic amphibole fractionation in polybaric environments
Tecchiato V. Gaeta M. Mollo S. Scarlato P. Bachmann O. (2018), Petrological constraints on the high-Mg basalts from Capo Marargiu (Sardinia, Italy): Evidences of cryptic amphibole fractionation in polybaric environments, in ournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 349, 31.
Compositional zonation of the shallow La Gloria pluton (Central Chile) by late-stage extraction/redistribution of residual melts by channelization
Aravena A. Gutiérrez F. J. Parada M. A. Payacán Í. Bachmann O. (2017), Compositional zonation of the shallow La Gloria pluton (Central Chile) by late-stage extraction/redistribution of residual melts by channelization, in Lithos, 284-285, 578.
Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism
Karakas O. Degruyter W. Bachmann O. Dufek. J (2017), Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism, in Nature Geoscience, 10, 446.
Mineralogical, geochemical, and textural indicators of crystal accumulation in the Adamello Batholith (Northern Italy):
Fiedrich A. Bachmann O. Ulmer P. Deering C. Kunze K. and Leuthold J. (2017), Mineralogical, geochemical, and textural indicators of crystal accumulation in the Adamello Batholith (Northern Italy):, in American Mineralogist, 102, 2467.
Silicic magma reservoirs in the Earth’s crust:
Bachmann O. Huber C. (2016), Silicic magma reservoirs in the Earth’s crust:, in American Mineralogist, 101, 2377.
The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy)
Forni F. Bachmann O. Mollo S. De Astis G. Gelman S. E. and Ellis B. S. (2016), The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy), in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 449, 259-271.
Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and trachy-phonolitic melts: A case study from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy)
Mollo S. Forni F. Bachmann O. Blundy J. D. De Astis G. and Scarlato P. (2016), Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and trachy-phonolitic melts: A case study from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy), in Lithos, 252-253, 160.
Zircon record of the plutonic-volcanic connection and protracted rhyolite melt evolution
Deering C. D. Keller B. Schoene B. Bachmann O. Beane R. and Ovtcharova M (2016), Zircon record of the plutonic-volcanic connection and protracted rhyolite melt evolution, in Geology, 44, 267.
Partial melting of the lower oceanic crust at spreading ridges
Leuthold J. Lissenberg C. J. O’Driscoll. B. Karakas O. Falloon T. Klimentyeva D. N. Ulmer, Partial melting of the lower oceanic crust at spreading ridges, in Frontiers in Earth Science, 6(15), 1.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Silvio Mollo/University of Rome, Sapienza Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Peter Ulmer/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. G. De Astis/INGV Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Ben Ellis/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Mike Clynne, USGS United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Wim Degruyter/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Albrecht Quadt Wykradt-Hüchtenbruck/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. J. Dufek/Georgia Tech United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Christoph Heinrich/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. T. Vennemann/UNIL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
iMUSH workshop Individual talk The petrological side of iMUSH 20.06.2017 Vacouver, WA, United States of America Bachmann Olivier;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Ist der Vesuv eine tickende Zeitbombe? Warum sich die Wissenschaft mit Prognosen schwertut NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Media relations: print media, online media Nach Erdbeben auf Ischia SRF News German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions FocusTerra Long Night of Museums 2016 German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions FOCUSTERRA talk series German-speaking Switzerland 2016

Awards

Title Year
EGU 2016 GMPV best poster award 2016
MSA Distinguished Lecturer 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
155923 Taking apart a ‘super’ eruption: the Kneeling Nun Tuff, New Mexico 01.11.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
173428 A subduction factory revealed: The Famatinian arc section, Argentina 01.11.2017 Bilateral programmes
146268 Towards a quantitative understanding of caldera-forming events 01.04.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

This proposal requests a funding extension for a long-term initiative to constrain the development and evolution of large magma reservoirs in the Earth’s crust. Magma reservoirs control igneous differentiation (including the liberation of fluids leading to ore deposits), the fluxes of heat and mass between mantle, crust and atmosphere, and the eruptive volumes potentially remobilized during volcanic eruptions. Hence, focusing on their physico-chemical evolution is key for a number of important questions in Earth Sciences. The goals of the first leg of this long-term initiative were (1) to compile field, petrological, geochemical and mineralogical data from units in several young volcanic systems with potential for large explosive events, in different tectonic settings, in order to determine petrological patterns that help predict the development of a large, eruptible magma pools in the upper crust and (2) to run inverse and forward models of magma reservoir evolution to illuminate potential outcomes for a given set of conditions. These goals were largely reached during this first part of this project (over the last 3 years), but additional efforts should be invested in the modeling part. Hence, work over the next two years will involve: (a) the continuation of Francesca Forni’s project on silicic magmas erupted in Italian Provinces (with specific focus on the Campanian ignimbrite and post-caldera units in the Campi Flegreii area), and (b) the continuation of the Mt St. Helens project, with focus on modeling the thermal emplacement of magmas in the Earth’s crust (project of Maren Wanke, further developed by a post-doctoral researcher, Dr. Ozge Karakas).
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