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The present project targets the so called Age-Prospective memory-Paradox. Prospective memory (PM) describes the processes and skills required to initiate and perform delayed intentions at a specific point in the future. While PM deficits in older adults are widely reported, the overall pattern is complex. In fact, it has been demonstrated that tasks carried out in a laboratory setting show an age deficit, whereas naturalistic tasks carried out in everyday environments actually show age-related benefits. This pattern has been called the age-PM-paradox.Explaining this paradox is a critical issue for understanding the effects of cognitive aging. For the first time we test the proposal that this effect is due to metacognition, based on the capacity to monitor our abilities and put in place strategies to overcome potential weaknesses. Metacognition concerns the reflective and higher order strategic and monitoring processes that govern cognition. In PM, effective monitoring is paramount: we need to be able to be aware of our ongoing mental operations, whilst keeping active the planned intention - this aspect of PM has seldom been examined. It is the general hypothesis of the current project that older adults will - due to greater experience - be better than younger adults in using their metacognitive knowledge and strategies in everyday life while the opposite is expected for laboratory tasks. In two work packages comprising three behavioral studies with healthy young and older adults we therefore examine metacognition in PM in healthy aging and the impact of feedback and practice. For this purpose, in study 1 (WP1) participants will be asked to work on standard laboratory and naturalistic PM tasks and will have to predict their performance and report on feelings of knowing. In addition, in WP2 we will assess the effects of online feedback on performance (study 2) and practice (study 3) on age- and situation-related PM performance. These two work packages will be conducted in Geneva. In a third work package (based and conducted in Grenoble and financed by the ANR) of the overall joint FNS-ANR grant and, we extend this work to Alzheimer’s disease (AD).