Project

Back to overview

Does a metacognitive deficit underlie the real world/laboratory prospective memory paradox in healthy and pathological aging? (PARADOX)

Applicant Kliegel Matthias
Number 164048
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Section de Psychologie Faculté Psychologie et Sciences éducation Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Psychology
Start/End 01.02.2016 - 30.09.2019
Approved amount 206'944.00
Show all

Keywords (2)

aging; memory

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Le présent sujet examine les résultats contradictoires dans le vieillissement cognitif. Il montre qu’en laboratoire, les personnes âgées ont de moins bonnes performances que les jeunes adultes en ce qui concerne la mémorisation des intentions, mais que ce résultat est inversé dans les tâches de la vie réelle. Jusqu’à maintenant, ce paradoxe reste non-résolu et nous examinons s’il est lié aux connaissances qu’a l’individu sur ce qu’est la mémoire et comment elle fonctionne, ainsi que les stratégies qui peuvent lui être utiles.
Lay summary
La mémoire prospective (PM) définit les processus et les compétences requis pour initier et exécuter les intentions prévues à un certain moment dans le futur. Se rappeler de participer à une réunion, prendre ses médicaments, payer une facture ou chercher ses enfants à l’école sont des tâches qui demandent une PM efficace.  La PM est ainsi très importante dans la vie de tous les jours et une PM intacte est un pré-requis pour le maintien de l’autonomie et de l’indépendance chez les adultes âgés. Les résultats montrent des déficits de la PM chez les adultes âgés, mais en réalité, l’histoire est plus complexe. Les tâches faites en laboratoire montrent un déficit lié à l’âge, alors que les tâches naturalistiques faites dans la vie de tous les jours montrent une amélioration avec l’âge. Ce résultat, maintes fois répliqué, est appelé le « age-PM paradox ». Le but de ce projet est justement d’expliquer ce paradoxe. Principalement, nous supposons que ce paradoxe pourrait être lié à notre connaissance sur notre propre mémoire et comment elle fonctionne et à quel moment nous sommes le plus performant. Cette capacité est appelée la métacognition et elle détermine également quelles sortes de stratégies nous allons employer pour nous aider à nous souvenir des informations.  L’hypothèse générale de ce projet est que les adultes âgés vont – grâce à une plus grande expérience – être meilleurs que les jeunes adultes dans l’utilisation des connaissances métacognitives et des stratégies dans leur vie de tous les jours, comparé à ce qui est attendu dans les tâches en laboratoire.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 11.12.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Prospective Memory Predictions in Aging: Increased Overconfidence in Older Adults
Cauvin Stéphanie, Moulin Christopher J.A., Souchay Céline, Kliegel Matthias, Schnitzspahn Katharina M. (2019), Prospective Memory Predictions in Aging: Increased Overconfidence in Older Adults, in Experimental Aging Research, 45(5), 436-459.
Laboratory vs. naturalistic prospective memory task predictions: young adults are overconfident outside of the laboratory
Cauvin Stéphanie, Moulin Christopher, Souchay Céline, Schnitzspahn Katharina, Kliegel Matthias (2018), Laboratory vs. naturalistic prospective memory task predictions: young adults are overconfident outside of the laboratory, in Memory, 27(5), 592-602.
Encyclopedia of Geropsychology
Kliegel Matthias, Schnitzspahn Katharina, Souchay Céline, Moulin Christopher (2017), Encyclopedia of Geropsychology, Springer Singapore, Singapore, 1893-1900.
Prospective memory development across the lifespan: An integrative framework
Zuber Sascha, Kliegel Matthias, Prospective memory development across the lifespan: An integrative framework, in European Psychologist.

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
ICPS Talk given at a conference The Role of Metacognition for Time-Based Prospective Memory: Age and Task Setting Matter 07.03.2019 Paris, France Kliegel Matthias; Cauvin Stéphanie;
Invited talk Talk given at a conference Development of prospective memory across the lifespan 08.11.2018 Padua, Italy Kliegel Matthias;
Geneva Aging Series Talk given at a conference Metacognition in Prospective memory: How good are we at predicting our future intentions 27.08.2018 St. Légier, Switzerland Moulin Christopher; Kliegel Matthias; Cauvin Stéphanie;
Hengstenberger Conference on Theoretical and Applied Advances in Prospective Memory Research Talk given at a conference Prospective memory and aging: How metacognition affects performance 01.07.2018 Heidelberg, Germany Kliegel Matthias;
Journées d’Étude du vieillissement 2018 Talk given at a conference Prospective memory in old age: A paradoxical story 05.03.2018 Chambéry, France Kliegel Matthias;
Invited Talk Talk given at a conference Dismantling the age-prospective memory paradox: Why older adults may sometimes outperform younger adults in cognitive tasks 09.06.2016 Freiburg, Germany Kliegel Matthias;


Abstract

The present project targets the so called Age-Prospective memory-Paradox. Prospective memory (PM) describes the processes and skills required to initiate and perform delayed intentions at a specific point in the future. While PM deficits in older adults are widely reported, the overall pattern is complex. In fact, it has been demonstrated that tasks carried out in a laboratory setting show an age deficit, whereas naturalistic tasks carried out in everyday environments actually show age-related benefits. This pattern has been called the age-PM-paradox.Explaining this paradox is a critical issue for understanding the effects of cognitive aging. For the first time we test the proposal that this effect is due to metacognition, based on the capacity to monitor our abilities and put in place strategies to overcome potential weaknesses. Metacognition concerns the reflective and higher order strategic and monitoring processes that govern cognition. In PM, effective monitoring is paramount: we need to be able to be aware of our ongoing mental operations, whilst keeping active the planned intention - this aspect of PM has seldom been examined. It is the general hypothesis of the current project that older adults will - due to greater experience - be better than younger adults in using their metacognitive knowledge and strategies in everyday life while the opposite is expected for laboratory tasks. In two work packages comprising three behavioral studies with healthy young and older adults we therefore examine metacognition in PM in healthy aging and the impact of feedback and practice. For this purpose, in study 1 (WP1) participants will be asked to work on standard laboratory and naturalistic PM tasks and will have to predict their performance and report on feelings of knowing. In addition, in WP2 we will assess the effects of online feedback on performance (study 2) and practice (study 3) on age- and situation-related PM performance. These two work packages will be conducted in Geneva. In a third work package (based and conducted in Grenoble and financed by the ANR) of the overall joint FNS-ANR grant and, we extend this work to Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
-