Emotion; Imaging; Brain; Executive function; Prematurity; Resilience
Lordier Lara, Meskaldji Djalel-Eddine, Grouiller Frédéric, Pittet Marie P., Vollenweider Andreas, Vasung Lana, Borradori-Tolsa Cristina, Lazeyras François, Grandjean Didier, Van De Ville Dimitri, Hüppi Petra S. (2019), Music in premature infants enhances high-level cognitive brain networks, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Chorna O., Filippa M., De Almeida J. Sa, Lordier L., Monaci M. G., Hüppi P., Grandjean D., Guzzetta A. (2019), Neuroprocessing Mechanisms of Music during Fetal and Neonatal Development: A Role in Neuroplasticity and Neurodevelopment, in Neural Plasticity
, 2019, 1-9.
Lordier Lara, Loukas Serafeim, Grouiller Frédéric, Vollenweider Andreas, Vasung Lana, Meskaldij Djalel-Eddine, Lejeune Fleur, Pittet Marie Pascale, Borradori-Tolsa Cristina, Lazeyras François, Grandjean Didier, Van De Ville Dimitri, Hüppi Petra S. (2019), Music processing in preterm and full-term newborns: A psychophysiological interaction (PPI) approach in neonatal fMRI, in NeuroImage
, 185, 857-864.
Adam-Darque Alexandra, Grouiller Frédéric, Vasung Lana, Ha-Vinh Leuchter Russia, Pollien Philippe, Lazeyras François, Hüppi Petra S (2017), fMRI-based Neuronal Response to New Odorants in the Newborn Brain., in Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Liverani Maria Chiara, Manuel Aurélie L, Nahum Louis, Guardabassi Veronica, Tomasetto Carlo, Schnider Armin (2017), Children's sense of reality: The development of orbitofrontal reality filtering., in Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
, 23(4), 408-421.
Réveillon Morgane, Hüppi Petra S, Barisnikov Koviljka (2017), Inhibition difficulties in preterm children: Developmental delay or persistent deficit?, in Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
Liverani Maria Chiara (2016), Orbitofrontal reality filtering specified: relation to temporal order memory, role of emotion, and development
, University of Geneva, Doctoral dissertation.
Yearly 15 million babies worldwide are born too soon. 10% of these preterm births occur very early before 32 weeks of gestation and these newborns are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders later in life. Neurocognitive disorders now touch 27% of the European population, and 5% or 3.3 million children suffer from social and learning difficulties, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders and autism, whose rates are increasing and prematurity contributes to this rise. Cognition, and socio-emotional competence are based on intact brain structure and functions that are formed early in development, both pre- and post-natally, and are heavily influenced by environment. Ramon y Cajal in his studies on the making of the brain clearly stated: "The total arborisation of a neuron represents the graphic history of conflicts suffered during its developmental life". Understanding how environment affects early brain development and defining timing and mode of early interventions to enhance brain development in high risk populations, such as preterm infants, is currently acknowledged as a fundamental endeavor for the scientific community (see guidelines of the National Scientific Council for the Developing Child). Interventions to improve and maintain cognitive and socio-emotional skills are to become an essential tool of medical care for high-risk infants.Advanced neuroimaging, especially MRI have allowed the detection of discrete brain abnormalities early in development (from the newborn period to childhood) with a clear negative impact on global and cognitive development of preterm infants. We have in recent project further developed these imaging tools to better specify the regional vulnerability of the preterm brain and its specific alterations in brain networks linked to socio-cognitive development. The results unambiguously indicated that the prefrontal and limbic cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic structural loop was weakened in preterm born children and that these alterations correlated with specific deficits in executive functions in these children, despite their normal IQ’s. Alongside with deficits in emotional regulation evidenced as early as 12 months of age and reduced volumes of brain structures involved in the corticolimbic system, these results provide compelling support for the hypothesis that preterm birth leads to a damage of prefrontal, including orbitofrontal and limbic brain networks later sub serving executive function and affective cognition. Even though the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), in its sulcation pattern, its thickness and its connectivity, has been shown to be especially altered as a consequence of preterm birth, studies assessing the function of the OFC in the context of preterm birth are so far missing. OFC in adults signals when an activated memory does not pertain to ongoing reality, It thus prevents behavior from being based on fantasies and is therefore essential for human behavior. Our preliminary results presented here show a clear relationship between performance in the reality filtering task in childhood and gestational age at birth, supporting our hypothesis that prematurity affects prefrontal and in particular OFC functions. Most daily adaptive behavior relies on even more complex interactions between affective and motivational processes, relying on the OFC and several other structures, and top down cognitive control mechanisms, primarily involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC). For instance, preventing attention being captured by emotional distractors in order to perform another task (such as in the emotional Flanker task), demands a successful cross-talk between orbitofrontal and prefrontal processes.As children born preterm have documented widespread difficulties in socio-emotional and executive functions, the tasks described above are ideally suited to study the function of the OFC and PFC, in the developing preterm brain. Our gaol in this proposal is fold: to perform an in-depth investigation of the structure and function of the orbitofrontal and prefrontal brain networks with advanced structural and functional imaging techniques and behavioural tasks specifically targeting these networks;to study three carefully selected age-appropriate perinatal and childhood behavioral interventions that are considered to make use of the brain networks we have described as affected by prematurity and improve socio-emotional and executive functions.First, in connection with a novel European initiative specifying the guidelines for developmental care (http://eadcare.org/), we outline a perinatal intervention to explore the effects of a music induced neuro-enhancement in preterm infants during their neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. The second intervention will be a computerized emotion and working memory training called Vis-à-Vis, which will be performed in children born preterm at age 6 to 9 years. The third intervention is a mindfulness based training (intentional self-regulation of attention) to be performed in 10-13 year old preterm children, both from our prior studied preterm cohorts.Overall, our planned research will fill an important gap in our theoretical understanding of the brain vulnerability linked to prematurity. Even more importantly, we will address the compelling issue of how to build cognitive and emotional resilience in preterm children, by preventing the onset of difficulties and reducing them with appropriate interventions.